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What is Stellar? | The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide

What is Stellar

Stellar is an open platform for building financial products that connect banks, people, and payment networks everywhere. Founded by an accomplished crypto entrepreneur and backed by an impressive group of advisors, is Stellar capable of changing the way we make international payments? In this beginner’s guide to Stellar, we’ll cover: What is Stellar? How Does…

The post What is Stellar? | The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide appeared first on UNHASHED.

Republished by Plato



Stellar is an open platform for building financial products that connect banks, people, and payment networks everywhere. Founded by an accomplished crypto entrepreneur and backed by an impressive group of advisors, is Stellar capable of changing the way we make international payments?

In this beginner’s guide to Stellar, we’ll cover:

Stellar is a distributed payment network which aims to make sending money internationally as cheap and easy as sending an email. While Stellar does offer a native cryptoasset called Lumens (XLM), the currency serves only a complementary role in the network’s design. Stellar’s primary use cases revolve around remittances and banking the unbanked, and the network prioritizes accessibility, security, and low transaction fees above all else. The ultimate goal is to create a financial network that is inclusive to everyone, including the poor, who are currently being underserved by expensive and outdated financial institutions.

Stellar was founded in early 2014 by Jed McCaleb — the same Jed McCaleb responsible for founding P2P file sharing network eDonkey, Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox (which he sold to French developer Mark Karpelès before the infamous security breach), and Ripple. Notable members of Stellar’s advisory board include Keith Rabois, Matt Mullenweg, Sam Altman, and Naval Ravikant.

The Stellar name is given to two entities:

  • The Stellar network refers to the distributed payment network responsible for processing financial transactions. Lumens (XLM) are the tokens native to the Stellar network; primarily serving as a bridge currency.
  • Stellar Development Foundation (SDF), also referred to as, is a nonprofit responsible for maintaining the Stellar network. Operational costs are covered by the 5% cut of total Lumens supply retained at launch, in addition to tax-deductible donations from the public.

Stellar began as a fork of the Ripple protocol after Jed McCaleb left the project citing philosophical differences. McCaleb’s breakup from Ripple was a messy affair, ending with him attempting to sell the entirety of his 9 billion ripples, a move that would have had significant impact on the XRP market. McCaleb later settled with Ripple in a court deal that would limit the amount of XRP he could sell at one time.

Though originally based on code borrowed from Ripple, Stellar underwent a complete network upgrade in November 2015 after claiming there were flaws in the underlying Ripple consensus mechanism. Ripple’s chief technology officer Stefan Thomas responded with a blog post titled, “Why the Stellar Forking Issue Does Not Affect Ripple”, concluding “there is no threat to the continued operation of the Ripple network.” Stellar is no longer considered a fork of Ripple as it uses completely different code since the 2015 revamp.

Stellar, like Ripple, is a payment network first and a cryptocurrency second. Stellar uses its native cryptoasset, XLM, as a means to better transfer fiat currencies rather than attempt to replace them.

Stellar: PayPal on the Blockchain

On the surface, the Stellar payment network functions similarly to PayPal. First, users deposit money onto Stellar through a trusted intermediary like a bank. Stellar then credits their account with the appropriate amount, and users are then free to send those funds to anyone on the network.  

Stellar’s payment network differentiates itself from PayPal by its use of blockchain technology. Blockchains provide numerous benefits to traditional servers, including decentralization, transparency, and security. Perhaps the most enticing reason to choose Stellar over PayPal is Stellar’s extremely low transaction fees. Transaction fees exist within Stellar for the sole purpose of preventing network spam, and are therefore very cheap. Base fees are currently set to .00001 XLM — a fraction of a penny.

Stellar can maintain these low fees because all transacting parties reside on the same network. This is in contrast to transactions through traditional financial systems, which are often subject to a long series of detours, racking up multiple conversion and processing fees along the way to their destination. Stellar is cheap, even compared to other cryptocurrencies, because there are no miners to pay. Transaction fees collected on Stellar are later redistributed back onto the network via inflation — more on that later.

Multi-Currency Transactions

Stellar makes international payments easy with their multi-currency transactions. For example, say you want to send me euros using your USD balance. This transaction can be completed a few different ways:

  1. Currency conversion. The Stellar ledger features a native orderbook for each currency/issuer pairing to deal with foreign exchanges. In this case, Stellar would look for someone wanting to sell EUR for USD and automatically complete the trade.
  2. Use Lumens. Lumens (XLM) are the native cryptoasset of the Stellar network. XLM can act as a bridge currency in situations where there isn’t an active market between two currencies. If nobody wants to sell EUR for USD, Stellar will instead look for a USD -> XLM offer, as it simultaneously seeks a XLM -> EUR offer. The network then makes those exchanges and completes your USD -> EUR conversion.
  3. Finally, if the previous options have been exhausted, Stellar seeks out offers available on the network that eventually lead to the desired conversion. Here’s an example path of what this process can look like: EUR to AUD, AUD to BTC, BTC to XLM, XLM to USD.

Stellar Consensus Protocol: How Transactions Get Validated

Stellar may not reward its validators for maintaining the blockchain, but they still have a job to do. Stellar nodes use a modified ‘federated byzantine agreement’ form of consensus, called the Stellar Consensus Protocol, to determine if transactions are valid or not. In this system, every node maintains a list of other nodes it wants to listen to, resulting in a chain of nodes essentially saying, “I trust this transaction so long as X amount of my friends also trust it”.  

The Stellar Consensus Protocol is considered an open membership system: anyone is free to become a validation node, and nodes can choose which other nodes they wish to follow instead of being fed a list from a central authority. This makes Stellar’s network design more decentralized than similar networks using delegated byzantine fault tolerance (dBFT) such as Ripple or NEO.

That being said, at this point in time Stellar only has 20-30 nodes powering its network. This lack of participation is a common side effect of systems choosing to forego economically incentivized consensus mechanisms. Validators exist on Stellar solely because they are willing to dedicate their resources for the sake of the network.

Inflation On the Stellar Network

New lumens are added to the Stellar network at a rate of 1% each year. The inflation mechanism runs on a weekly basis, distributing the inflation pool to any account on the Stellar network receiving over .05% of total votes. The size of the inflation pool is determined by the following formula: (number of lumens in existence)*(weekly inflation rate) + fee pool. Votes are weighted based on the amount of lumens you hold; 1 lumen is equal to 1 vote.

Every account has the option of participating in this voting process, but the lucky winners will need to earn a minimum of .05% of total votes — that’s 9,233,901 votes based on today’s circulating supply. Winners are paid out their share of the inflation pool; earn 5% of total votes and you’ll get 5% of the total pool. Some XLM holders have formed groups in which they combine their voting power to a designated account and split the earnings among all participants.

Stellar’s XLM is available on a variety of different cryptocurrency exchanges, including Binance and Bittrex. These two exchanges handle a combined daily volume of over $16 million in XLM alone; putting them behind only Korean cryptocurrency exchange Upbit.

There are a healthy selection of wallets capable of holding your XLM securely. lists a total of 11 compatible wallets, including 4 desktop wallets, 4 mobile wallets, and 8 web wallets. The safest place to store your XLM is in a hardware wallet. The Ledger Nano S is a good option that is compatible with XLM.

It’s worth pointing out the disclaimer on Stellar’s wallet page: “ does not own, maintain or operate any of these wallets.

Stellar wants to become the standard method of sending money around the world. The team is taking a bottom up approach, focusing on money transfer and remittance companies instead of large, risk-averse banks. Stellar believes banks need to see the protocol succeeding elsewhere before they actually begin using the network. IBM has declared they are a believer, which is a pretty good start.

It’s Stellar’s opinion that the fees associated with moving money, especially across borders, have a disproportionate impact on the poor. Working families, for example, spend $44 billion every year on Western Union or similar middleman fees. Stellar sees this massive number as an unnecessary expense being taken from people by an outdated financial architecture.

Stellar finds itself standing alone in a middleground: not quite in the cryptocurrency crowd, and not quite in the legacy payment network crowd. Stellar is significantly more decentralized than PayPal, but with no incentive mechanism for validation nodes, it is unclear just how decentralized Stellar will remain. Stellar’s ultimate success will depend on its adoption by legacy financial institutions, and how the network will be able to scale. Assuming it succeeds, however, Stellar has the potential to revolutionize the way people transfer money.



The Hard Sell

Republished by Plato



The prices are low and the panic is high. Is this the time to sell?

If you’ve been around crypto for longer than a couple of months, you’re probably familiar with the feelings that come with your average market-wide correction.

Euphoria fizzling away as that first red candle starts dropping down, down, down. Confidence in a quick recovery giving way to sweaty-palmed anxiety as the correction passes the 10, 20, 30% mark. Is this the big one? We all know what happened on March 13th last year. Finger hovering over the “Sell” button, knowing that if you just pressed it this horrible feeling would go away.

And even worse are the recriminations. How could I have been so blind? How did I let this happen? Why didn’t I sell when the going was good? Will I ever feel joy again?

Unrealised profit and loss

Look, I’m not going to say I told you so, but if there has ever been a market in need of a correction it was the crypto market of the last two months. It wasn’t a question of if your alt was going to do a 50 or 100% day; it was a question of when. Meanwhile, Bitcoin basically tripled its 2017 all-time high over the course of eight weeks, making it (briefly) a trillion dollar asset.

It’s not that bitcoin doesn’t deserve to be in that August club, but more to point out that markets will always revert to the mean, no matter how compelling the background narrative might be. And in the same way that you don’t expect to see an elephant jump over a small apartment block, an asset of bitcoin’s size shouldn’t be tripling in size like it ain’t no thing. Especially not when it’s taken three long, hard years to get back to its previous peak.

Timing is everything

Here’s the thing though: in every other market that humanity has ever created, taking three years to make a new all-time high actually is perfectly reasonable, bordering on suspiciously fast. Investments aren’t supposed to be measured in days or weeks. They’re supposed to take years, if not decades to play out. But the speed, 24/7 relentlessness and hyper-visibility of the crypto markets means it’s very easy to lose sight of the bigger picture. People who bought in at the absolute peak of the last bubble are still up 250% – presuming that they had the patience to hold on for a measly three years.

Nonetheless, selling can produce a real and concrete advantage. Get out near the top and you might be able to buy back in close to the bottom, thereby compounding your gains. (Despite what the people of TikTok Investors would have you believe, this is far harder than it appears.)

More simply though, money is money and when assets are appreciating like crypto assets have recently that can mean getting ahead of your mortgage, or buying a car, or paying for a holiday for your family, or being able to cover rent for the next month. If what you’ve made could make a difference in your life, then it makes complete and total sense to sell some – even if you think the crypto market is going to keep on going up. As the old adage goes, no-one ever went poor from taking profits.

Respect the sell-out

That’s not an invitation or a suggestion to sell it all right now – a good rule of thumb is sell when it feels hard (i.e. on the way up) not when it’s easy (on the way down) – but more to start thinking about what your endgame is. What do you hope to gain from this bull run? How much is enough? And will you be strong enough to start getting out when you reach your target? (Also, on a more prosaic note, what would taking profits mean for your tax?)

These are questions without easy answers, but start planning now and you’re less likely to be swept up in the mania and delirium that marks the real, bloody and unmistakable end of the bull market. And until then? DIAMOND HANDS ENGAGE.


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Kraken Daily Market Report for March 02 2021

Republished by Plato




  • Total spot trading volume at $1.68 billion, down from the 30-day average of $2.09 billion.
  • Total futures notional at $584.1 million.
  • The top five traded coins were, respectively, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, Cardano, and Polkadot.
  • Strong returns from Curve Dao (+12%), Flow (+5.1%), and Melon (+6.4%).

March 02, 2021 
 $1.84B traded across all markets today

#####################. Trading Volume by Asset. ##########################################

Trading Volume by Asset

The figures below break down the trading volume of the largest, mid-size, and smallest assets. Cryptos are in purple, fiats are in blue. For each asset, the chart contains the daily trading volume in USD, and the percentage of the total trading volume. The percentages for fiats and cryptos are treated separately, so that they both add up to 100%.

Figure 1: Largest trading assets: trading volume (measured in USD) and its percentage of the total trading volume (March 02 2021)

Figure 2: Mid-size trading assets: (measured in USD) (March 02 2021)

Figure 3: Smallest trading assets: (measured in USD) (March 02 2021)

#####################. Spread %. ##########################################

Spread %

Spread percentage is the width of the bid/ask spread divided by the bid/ask midpoint. The values are generated by taking the median spread percentage over each minute, then the average of the medians over the day.

Figure 4: Average spread % by pair (March 02 2021)


#########. Returns and Volume ############################################

Returns and Volume

Figure 5: Returns of the four highest volume pairs (March 02 2021)

Figure 6: Volume of the major currencies and an average line that fits the data to a sinusoidal curve to show the daily volume highs and lows (March 02 2021)

###########. Daily Returns. #################################################

Daily Returns %

Figure 7: Returns over USD and XBT. Relative volume and return size is indicated by the size of the font. (March 02 2021)

###########. Disclaimer #################################################

The values generated in this report are from public market data distributed from Kraken WebSockets api. The total volumes and returns are calculated over the reporting day using UTC time.


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Vitalik proposes solution to link certain layer-two scaling projects

Republished by Plato



In an ongoing effort to battle escalating transaction fees while creating a unified ecosystem, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin has proposed a solution for a particular type of cross-rollup scaling.

The proposal outlines how two protocols using rollups can communicate with each other while maintaining interconnectivity and composability.

Rollups are layer-two solutions that are essentially smart contract networks that process and store transaction data off the main chain. However, there are a number of different rollup types, with each using unique smart contracts such as optimistic and zero-knowledge.

While a number of DeFi projects have deployed layer-two rollups, such as Loopring and Synthetix, the particulars of the various rollups mean projects are unable to communicate to one another directly on layer-two.

Buterin’s proposal assumes that one rollup can process simple transactions whereas the other has full smart contract support. There are already proposals for transfers between two smart contract enabled protocols using rollups.

To explain how the proposal works, Buterin provides the example of a hypothetical exchange intermediary he called ‘Ivan’ — where Ivan has an account ‘IVAN_A’ on rollup A that he fully controls, and also has some funds deposited in a smart contract ‘IVAN_B’ on rollup B.

The smart contract would be programmed to accept “memos” that include additional data from anyone sending to it in order to secure any future transactions. The transactions create a connecting layer that keeps deposits in all these isolated contracts, allowing rollup A to send to rollup B via this layer.

Buterin suggested that the behavior would work as follows;

“Alice sends a transaction to IVAN_A with N coins and a memo ALICE_B. Ivan sends a transaction sending TRADE_VALUE * (1 – fee) coins through IVAN_B to ALICE_B”

He added that the worst-case behavior would be if Ivan does not send coins to ALICE_B as he is expected to.

Addressing the “worst-case” scenario that could arise as a result of using the proposed situation, Buterin emphasized that Alice would still be able to wait until the transaction on rollup A confirms, find some alternate route to getting coins on rollup B to pay fees, and then simply claim the funds herself.

Responding to the proposal, Alon Muroch pointed out that it worked in a similar way to how banks clear transactions:

“That’s very interesting, similar to how banks clear transactions between themselves. Batching assets into separate “accounts” could have limitations, a solution could be just big pools on either ends and fees split pro-rata.”


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