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What Is Cardano? | The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide

Cardano

Cardano is a smart contract platform that seeks to deliver more advanced features than any blockchain protocol before it. Developed using a strict, academically sound philosophy, Cardano is looking to set new security standards for the rest of the crypto industry. In this beginner’s guide to Cardano, we’ll cover: What is Cardano? The Scientific Method…

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Cardano is a smart contract platform that seeks to deliver more advanced features than any blockchain protocol before it. Developed using a strict, academically sound philosophy, Cardano is looking to set new security standards for the rest of the crypto industry.

In this beginner’s guide to Cardano, we’ll cover:

While Cardano has occasionally been referred to as the “Ethereum of Japan”, the team behind it considers the project to be a third generation blockchain — building on what existing blockchains have done right, and implementing novel technology where improvements are needed.

The Cardano blockchain was publicly launched on September 29th, 2017, with the platform’s native token, “ADA”, being made available for trading on October 1st. The team behind Cardano is made up of three entities:

Cardano Foundation: The Cardano Foundation is a Switzerland-based non-profit which aims to standardize, protect, and promote the Cardano protocol around the world. Most recently, the Cardano Foundation has connected with Ledger, the French hardware wallet manufacturing firm, to integrate ADA compatibility.

IOHK: Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK) is an engineering company that builds cryptocurrencies and blockchains for academic institutions, government entities, and corporations. Founded in 2015 by Ethereum co-founder Charles Hoskinson and Ethereum alum Jeremy Wood, IOHK describes itself as, “a decentralized company that loves small, innovative teams forming and executing ideas that cause cascading disruption”. IOHK is contracted to design, build, and maintain the Cardano platform through 2020.

Emurgo: Emurgo is a Japanese company formed to integrate, develop, and support businesses that want to utilize Cardano’s decentralized blockchain. It was Emurgo’s decision to hire IOHK and many argue that Emurgo looks to be the ConsenSys to Cardano’s Ethereum.

Ultimately, Cardano aims to become a better, more secure Ethereum. While both platforms seek to provide a strong foundation for developers to build smart contracts and decentralized applications, they differ in how they plan to get there. Cardano is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach.

Also Read Our Cardano vs Ethereum Comparison.

Charles Hoskinson and IOHK have adopted a unique development philosophy that aims to raise the standards of due diligence we expect from blockchain developers. With this goal in mind, Cardano was built using a rigorous process that ensures the safety and security of its code by means of formal verification, first principles, and peer reviews.

Here’s what you need to know about Cardano’s scientific philosophy:

  • Cardano is written in the Haskell programming language, which enables the formal verification of code. To formally verify code is to make a claim with mathematical certainty on what functions a program is capable, or incapable of performing.
  • First principles thinking is the act of boiling a process down to the fundamental parts that you know are true and building up from there.
  • A peer review is defined as an evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field.

This approach is completely new to cryptocurrency, which is surprising given the billions of dollars at stake in the industry. An impassioned Hoskinson reiterated this point in a recent interview:
Charles Hoskinson Cardano Founder

“If they’re going to be worth this much money, shouldn’t we at least demand that somebody spends a few months of fucking time to go to the world’s top people and get those people to give it a little checkmark…that’s just common sense.”

The average person reading a white paper often has no idea how to interpret technical specifications. Therefore, there is an implicit trust that these technical elements are valid. But what if they aren’t?

Peer review is a time-tested method of ensuring a particular theory is sound. According to Hoskinson there are bright people who don’t have adequate domain experience within crypto who are writing papers that “kind of, sort of” work, but their security holes won’t be discovered for years because nobody is actively trying to tear them apart.

IOHK holds Cardano to a higher standard, because they feel that they have a moral obligation to ensure the platform’s quality and safety. The Cardano team hopes that this kind of rigorous development philosophy eventually becomes a standard in the cryptocurrency industry.  

Cardano is composed of two primary parts: a settlement layer to handle cryptocurrency transactions, and a computing layer, which handles computation for smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps).

The separation of payment and computation is a design choice intended to make future upgrades easier. This way the Cardano team is able to make changes to the settlement layer, such as tweaking the consensus algorithm, without affecting the computing layer. End users are unlikely to notice the behind-the-scenes improvements earned by this modular design.  

Cardano regards itself as third generation blockchain. The reasoning goes something like this:

  • Bitcoin is a first generation blockchain. Bitcoin figured out how to transfer value from one person to another without requiring a third party in the transaction, but isn’t well suited for smart contracts.
  • Ethereum is a second generation blockchain. Ethereum brought programmable transactions (smart contracts) to the blockchain, but struggles with scale and governance, among other things.
  • Cardano claims to be a third generation blockchain; citing scalability, interoperability, and sustainability as its major technological improvements lacking in earlier blockchains.

Cardano plans to realize its potential as a third generation blockchain by achieving consensus in a modular, future-forward way, handling large amounts of bandwidth efficiently, and coming up with clever ways of managing data without compromising security.

Achieving Consensus with Ouroboros

Cardano uses a modified proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus protocol called Ouroboros. Proof-of-stake algorithms choose who will make the next block randomly, with each person having a chance that is proportional to their total ownership (stake) of the native token. According to Charles Hoskinson, Ouroboros is among the most efficient consensus protocols in the crypto space. Here’s how it works:

Time in Cardano is divided into epochs (pronounced “epics”), which are further divided into slots. Slots are short time periods of around 20 seconds, and each slot has a designated leader. Slot leaders can create no more than a single block in their assigned slot. Transaction fees in a given epoch are pooled together and distributed to the slot leaders.  

Slot leaders serve the same purpose in Cardano as miners in Bitcoin, but without the extreme computational demands required in a proof-of-work system. Cardano claims to offer a similar security guarantee as Bitcoin’s proof-of-work despite being considerably cheaper to run.

How are slot leaders chosen?

Network participants must hold a minimum threshold stake in ADA. All qualifying participants are considered electors for the next epoch. Slot leader elections are performed via a distributed method of random number generation. The final output is a unique identifier for an existing coin and the owner of this lucky coin becomes a slot leader!  

Cardano finds itself relatively early in its development cycle. According to the project roadmap, Cardano is currently working on completing “Byron”, the bootstrap phase, in which they are actively making improvements to code, debugging, and working on the ‘Daedalus’ wallet. There are a lot of exciting features the IOHK team is working on, but it’s likely to be another year or two before we see Cardano operating at full capacity.

One of the coolest upcoming technologies being developed for Cardano revolves around the concept of interoperability. Cardano is of the belief that there won’t be one token to rule them all; instead, we will likely use multiple public blockchains for different purposes. If this is true, and the future presents a world in which Cardano, Bitcoin, and Ethereum can co-exist with legacy banking platforms like SWIFT and ACH, we’ll want some way to communicate between different blockchains and legacy networks.

Third generation blockchains like Cardano will have the capability to understand and watch other blockchains, while also enabling metadata and compliance framework optionality for legacy systems in a privacy-conscious way. This approach won’t permit custodianship of personally identifiable data.  

Cardano also plans to work on a solution for the sustainability and governance of decentralized protocols. The development of cryptocurrencies today is funded mostly through initial coin offerings (ICOs). ICOs quickly generate huge lump sums which must be strategically allocated, leaving vulnerable investors hopeful that the ICO’s team does the right thing with their newfound riches. Unlucky cryptocurrency investors have learned that people don’t always do the right thing.

Cardano hopes to address this problem with a treasury system that is funded by inflation. In short, the idea is to print money into a decentralized bank account. The funds from this account will then be spent through an unspecified democratic process that will allow network users to vote on which proposals receive funding. IOHK believes that finding solutions to sustainability problems like this is essential for the overall health of a decentralized protocol.

‘ADA’ is the cryptocurrency native to the Cardano platform and is named after the world’s first computer programmer, Ada Lovelace. In the Cardano network’s current state, ADA is only used to send and receive value. The process for sending and receiving ADA works just like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and most other cryptocurrencies.  In the future, ADA will also be used for staking, smart contracts, and the treasury.

ADA can be purchased on a variety of cryptocurrency exchanges, most notably Binance and Bittrex. You can find our step-by-step guide on how to buy Cardano (ADA) here.

The only wallet that currently supports ADA is called Daedalus. Daedalus is a highly secure wallet for the ADA cryptocurrency and was developed by the IOHK team. Although Daedalus is currently the only option, Ledger appears to be working on supporting ADA in the near future.

Daedalus ADA Wallet

Just like Cardano, the Daedalus wallet has a promising roadmap that includes features like supporting non-ADA cryptocurrencies, custom themes and plugins, and a mobile wallet for Android and iOS. You can find more information regarding the Daedalus wallet at it’s official website here.

Cardano is an innovative third-generation blockchain platform that has been carefully constructed from the ground up in a provably secure manner. The Cardano team, driven by IOHK, is determined to outclass its competition by holding its product to scientific standards we haven’t yet seen in the cryptocurrency industry.

The Cardano project is far from finished. ADA currently holds the sixth largest market cap at the time of writing, placing it above plenty of complete, and nearly complete projects. It’s no secret that market cap isn’t a perfect metric, but it’s worth noting in this instance as it indicates there is a lot of enthusiasm about the platform.

Cardano has a long list of exciting developments expected to be realized over the next couple of years. Whether it’s the aforementioned interoperability and governance features, or the adoption of a “K”-based virtual machine to allow non-Haskell developers to participate, the Cardano project is setting itself up to be a potential leader in the cryptocurrency industry.

Source: https://unhashed.com/cryptocurrency-coin-guides/what-is-cardano/

Blockchain

Google’s Policy to Allow Cryptocurrency Ads Kicks In

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Earlier in June, Google revealed that it would update its Financial products and services policy to once again allow cryptocurrency businesses to advertise through its search engine. Now, the changes take effect.

  • As CryptoPotato reported earlier in June, Google had revealed that they plan to update the Financial products and services policy.
  • Yesterday, the update kicked in, and cryptocurrency businesses can once again advertise through its platform.
  • However, there are still some requirements to be considered.
  • Only cryptocurrency exchanges in the US are allowed to promote their businesses through Google. They have to be registered with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) and also to comply with all relevant legal requirements and Google Ads policies.
  • Some restrictions still remain for cryptocurrency companies associated with Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), DeFi trading protocols, and so forth.
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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/googles-policy-to-allow-cryptocurrency-ads-kicks-in-today/

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Bingbon Partners with Paxful Expanding Fiat-to-Crypto Instruments

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[PRESS RELEASE – Singapore, Singapore, 4th August 2021]

Bingbon.com – Derivatives-based social trading platform Bingbon has partnered with Paxful, a peer-to-peer finance platform for people to make payments, transactions, and send money by buying and selling cryptocurrencies as a means of exchange.

As a result, users can take full advantage of Paxful’s fiat to crypto network directly on Bingbon’s trading platform.

Not only will Bingbon users be able to fund their accounts directly with local fiat currency using Paxful’s nearly 400 payment methods, but they also have access to a one-stop crypto derivatives trading platform.

Without a doubt, this joint initiative between Bingbon and Paxful creates new trading opportunities for users. Aside from Bitcoin, traders can obtain other cryptocurrencies with a large variety of different fiat currencies. Paxful’s Bitcoin Virtual Banking allows users to find sellers who meet the criteria of their Bitcoin trading needs instantly. Further to that, users can conduct payments quickly through Paxful on Bingbon.

“Crypto accessibility is key in order to spur adoption and highlight its use case as a means of exchange. That is why we’re thrilled to partner with Bingbon to make trading cryptocurrency even more seamless to their millions of users,” said Ray Youssef, CEO, and co-founder at Paxful.

All in all, the partnership is intended to provide users of Bingbon with access to multiple new payment options through the Peer-to-Peer marketplace offered by Paxful. The integration has the general objective of simplifying and facilitating access to digital assets for users worldwide, which reflects Bingbon’s mission of accelerating digital finance by technology.

“We are glad that we’ve integrated with Paxful. For Bingbon, this means introducing and exposing our users to a new trading experience. Bingbon users can find nearly 400 different ways to buy digital assets via Paxful. All of this is in line with our goal to make the crypto market more accessible to everyone.

Furthermore, we will be able to penetrate the Latin American market even more aggressively than before.” said Elvisco Carrington, Communications and Partnership Manager at Bingbon.

About Bingbon

Founded in 2018, Bingbon is a crypto social trading exchange that offers both cryptocurrency spot & derivatives trading services. As a crypto social trading network, Bingbon is committed to giving users access to smarter cryptocurrency trading strategies and ensuring users invest in a simple, engaging, and transparent way.

About Paxful

Paxful is a peer-to-peer finance platform for people to make payments, transactions, and send money by buying and selling cryptocurrencies as a means of exchange. Founded in 2015 by Ray Youssef and Artur Schaback, Paxful’s mission is to help everyone have equal access to finance no matter who or where they are. Six million people use Paxful to buy and sell Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), and Tether (USDT) with almost 400 different payment methods.

Ray Youssef, co-founder, and CEO of Paxful set up the Built with Bitcoin Foundation to help people have access to education and water. To date, the foundation has built six schools (two in Rwanda, two in Kenya, and two in Nigeria), multiple water projects, and cultivated dozens of farms. The Built with Bitcoin Foundation is funded by Paxful and the cryptocurrency community.

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/bingbon-partners-with-paxful-expanding-fiat-to-crypto-instruments/

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Circle and Unstoppable Domains Introduce Usernames for USDC Transfers

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Circle, the blockchain company behind one of the most popular stablecoins – USDC, plans to simplify user experience and USDC transfers in different apps and exchanges. To do so, the company has introduced usernames for wallets through a partnership with the domain name provider – Unstoppable Domains.

Circle Introduces USDC Usernames

In a press release shared with CryptoPotato, Circle announced the partnership with the DLT-based domain name provider. Thus, the fintech firm will implement “simple and easily-readable” usernames for payments involving its own stablecoin – USD Coin.

They will replace the “lengthy alphanumeric wallet addresses,” which could confuse some users. As a result, customers will be able to easily transfer USDC across the growing number of applications, exchanges, and wallets utilizing the stablecoin.

Both parties admitted that they looked to other payment processors like PayPal and Venmo, where usernames have simplified transactions. Unstoppable Domains pledged to implement such usernames to more than 30 wallets and exchange partners of Circle to “accelerate decentralized peer-to-peer transactions.”

“USDC has grown dramatically in the last year, fueling commerce and payments activity across the Internet. With Unstoppable Domains’ .coin usernames, sending USDC becomes just as easy as sending an email. We believe this is a major step forward in making USDC payments accessible for all.” – commented Circle’s Senior Vice President of Marketing – Josh Hawkins.

Matthew Gould, Founder and CEO of Unstoppable Domains outlined the significant growth of stablecoin usage in the past few years. He added, “simple usernames combined with dollar-pegged stablecoins take the fear and risk out of spending crypto.”


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Recent Circle Developments

Apart from the initiative described above, the blockchain company recently announced other significant developments. Circle partnered with the global financial services giant Mastercard to trial USDC settlements.

Before that, the firm highlighted plans to follow the example of Coinbase and become a publicly-traded company. It intends to do so through a merger with a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) called Concord Acquisition Corp, and the total valuation is at $4.5 billion.

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/circle-and-unstoppable-domains-introduce-usernames-for-usdc-transfers/

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