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Blockchain

Systematic Fragility in Decentralized Finance

With the start of a new decade, a new wave is affecting the global financial system, the wave is of decentralized finance protocols. The ecosystem has already packed a value of $1.2 billion in 2020. Though the platform has a huge and revolutionary potential yet it is in it’s developing phase and is immature and […]

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With the start of a new decade, a new wave is affecting the global financial system, the wave is of decentralized finance protocols. The ecosystem has already packed a value of $1.2 billion in 2020.

Though the platform has a huge and revolutionary potential yet it is in it’s developing phase and is immature and thus there are several common vulnerabilities which do not make the platform unsafe for users but a cautious place for them to be and so here are few risks from which the users should be aware to make an informed decision.

Centralization:

The name pronounce os Defi is Decentralized Finance but according to a source, most of the Defi apps depend on the centralized entities for their operation in one way or the other, in that source there was a part mentioned where it stated that anyone having the access of Compound admin key can drain all the platform’s lending pools.

In the case of lending protocols, there is a different concern. A metric named “utilization rate” is used in a  Compound in which the percentage of the staked funds that have been lent out in a moment is described. The higher the percentage the greater the risk of a liquidity crisis getting triggered. This risk is minuted by the compound through its interest rate model which adjusts according to the utilization rate.

Market Manipulation

The market of Defi is still vulnerable to manipulation tactics as Defi is currently unregulated. The tactics are.

Frontrunning:

In blockchain when there several transactions waiting to enter a block and become confirmed, they are queued in a mempool which is visible to any trader, The trader can enter in with their own trade and can get a higher gas fee, by this the miners will more likely select them for inclusion in next block rather than first transaction.

Oracle Manipulation:

 When a Defi dApp uses only a single or double exchange as an oracle the price information provided by an oracle can be manipulated by traders by trading large transactions since the liquidity on that exchange is very less it is easier to manipulate the price, the traders make leveraged trade on the manipulated price and reap maximum profit.

Account Security:

When any user is using or investing in a Defi dApp, their funds are being transferred into another user wallet and the transaction is governed by a Smart contract but this all happens through a dApp and it can also be a possibility that someone, somewhere, has private keys to the wallet

The measures which are used to prevent funds from hackers are such as multi-signature security and time locks, however, it is impossible for any user to be assured totally that these methods are being applied as the Defi teams are very secretive about their practices. Multi-signature is a measure visible to the user but again there is no proof that not even a single individual has access to all the signature which is required for transactions. 

It is being assumed that as the Defi area matures the developers may advance their security modules.

Ethereum Dependency:

Scalability is the biggest weakness of Ethereum and still, most of the Defi is still dependent on Ethereum. The transaction speed in Ethereum is around 15 TPS, and Ethereum is able to keep up with the transactions of stablecoin 

Ethereum 2.0 upgrade which is promised still may take a few years and that too it is not sure that the current issue will be alleviated or not. So, for now, the dependence of Defi on Ethereum can be considered a fragility.

Conclusion:

All these fragilities and drawbacks are not necessarily the reason for the users to run scared away from Defi, the crucial part for the users is “do your own research” before getting involved with Defi. The users should understand the risks involved when investing in crypto and related applications and then take the calculated and measured approach to minimize the risks.


At QuillHash, we understand the Potential of Blockchain and have a good team of developers who can develop any blockchain applications like Smart Contracts, dApps, DeFi, DEX on the any Blockchain Platform like EthereumEOS , Stellar and Hyperledger.

For further discussion and queries on the same topic, join the discussion on Telegram group of QuillHash — https://t.me/quillhash.

Source: https://blog.quillhash.com/2020/02/28/systematic-fragility-in-decentralized-finance/

Blockchain

Opimas estimates that over US$190 billion worth of Bitcoin is currently at risk due to subpar safekeeping

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May 2021. Safekeeping of cryptocurrencies presents a challenge for institutions holding cryptocurrencies on their clients’ behalf. Cryptocurrency transactions are irreversible and anyone with full access to a wallet’s private key controls the cryptocurrencies that reside within it. Frighteningly, a number of institutional participants and even some large cryptocurrency exchanges rely on subpar custody approaches, leading Opimas to estimate that over US$190 billion worth of Bitcoin is currently at risk due to subpar safekeeping.

Luckily, a number of companies have emerged to address this problem. A new research report from Opimas—Crypto Custody: No More Excuses, authored by analysts Suzannah Balluffi and Anne-Laure Foubert—looks at the landscape of cryptocurrency custody-enabling technology providers and institutional-grade cryptocurrency custodians as well as the size of the market for cryptocurrency custody and brokerage services.

Some key findings in the report include:

Many of even the largest holders of Bitcoin and other digital assets continue to rely on storage devices meant for individual investors. Although some of these self-custody devices and wallets are secure and reputable, the operational risk posed by this approach is significant for institutional investors. Furthermore, a chunk of institutionals’ cryptocurrency holdings sit in hot wallets on exchanges. In total, about 22% of institutional cryptocurrency holdings are safeguarded in these relatively risky manners (Figure 1).

Figure 1. CUSTODY METHODS UTILIZED BY INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS 

 

Source: Opimas analysis.

There are no more excuses for lackadaisical safekeeping – institutions can now choose from several reputable cryptocurrency custody-enabling technology providers and institutional-grade cryptocurrency custodians. Yet no custody solution is equal – there is still no best practice when it comes to security and governance relating to private keys. For example, some providers may rely on time-tested Hardware Security Modules (HSMs), while others use a newer technology known as Multi-Party Computation (MPC) – see Figure 2.

Figure 2. A COMPARISON OF HSM AND MPC TECHNOLOGY PROVIDERS

Source: Ledger, Fireblocks, Opimas analysis.

Some cryptocurrency custodians have followed in the footsteps of traditional capital markets by adding prime brokerage services to their offerings, including trading and settlement, lending, margin finance, staking, reporting, and capital introduction services. Opimas estimates that the current annual revenues generated by the institutional crypto brokerage and custody market are roughly US$2 billion and will grow to nearly US$8 billion by 2026 – a sizeable portion of this coming from brokerage services (Figure 3).

FIGURE 3. THE MARKET FOR CRYPTO CUSTODY & PRIME BROKERAGE SERVICES IS GROWING 

Source:  Opimas analysis. 

  • Regulations surrounding institutions’ ability to store cryptocurrency have become clearer (and in some cases more favorable) in numerous jurisdictions. Notably, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) ruling in the US has allowed banks to store cryptocurrencies for their customers. This regulatory clarity has led a number of financial institutions around the world to provide trading and custody for digital assets. With the advances in brokerage and custody solutions, Opimas expects institutional cryptocurrency holdings to grow from 20% of the cryptocurrency market cap to over 50% by 2026 (Figure 4).

FIGURE 4. INstitutional cryptocurrency holdings over time 

Source:  Opimas analysis.

Source: PlatoData Intelligence

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Blockchain

Kraken Daily Market Report for May 08 2021

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Overview


  • Total spot trading volume at $2.86 billion, 9% higher than the 30-day average of $2.63 billion.
  • Total futures notional at $797.5 million.
  • The top five traded coins were, respectively, Ethereum, Bitcoin, Dogecoin, Tether and Ethereum Classic.
  • Strong returns from Gnosis (+14%) and Ethereum (+12%).

May 08, 2021 
 $2.86B traded across all markets today
 Crypto, EUR, USD, JPY, CAD, GBP, CHF, AUD 
ETH 
$3914.1 
↑12% 
$797.5M
XBT 
$58953. 
↑2.7% 
$795.7M
XDG 
$0.6368 
↓7.6% 
$636.4M
USDT 
$1.0014 
↑0.05% 
$285.3M
ETC 
$128.55 
↑7.0% 
$104.4M
ADA 
$1.6234 
↓1.9% 
$79.3M
LTC 
$347.39 
↑0.6% 
$50.5M
XRP 
$1.5653 
↓1.0% 
$48.7M
DOT 
$39.923 
↑0.07% 
$43.9M
BCH 
$1400.7 
↑4.4% 
$42.4M
USDC 
$1.0 
↑0.0% 
$40.4M
LINK 
$48.693 
↓1.3% 
$30.8M
EOS 
$10.361 
↓0.26% 
$29.7M
TRX 
$0.1431 
↓3.0% 
$17.1M
FLOW 
$28.668 
↓2.9% 
$16.1M
SC 
$0.0405 
↓4.7% 
$15.6M
STORJ 
$2.2312 
↓0.4% 
$14.7M
ATOM 
$29.510 
↑3.0% 
$11.8M
XLM 
$0.6155 
↓2.5% 
$11.6M
DASH 
$409.86 
↑1.3% 
$11.2M
XTZ 
$6.9881 
↓1.3% 
$10.0M
QTUM 
$25.576 
↓4.3% 
$9.83M
XMR 
$476.08 
↑4.6% 
$9.7M
KSM 
$435.0 
↑1.3% 
$7.39M
ZEC 
$315.75 
↓1.3% 
$6.91M
FIL 
$148.15 
↓1.4% 
$6.82M
WAVES 
$32.449 
↓0.14% 
$6.57M
UNI 
$40.532 
↑2.0% 
$6.55M
ALGO 
$1.5198 
↓3.7% 
$6.03M
DAI 
$1.0011 
↓0.01% 
$6.0M
OMG 
$11.829 
↓0.15% 
$5.87M
LSK 
$8.4918 
↓6.0% 
$3.77M
COMP 
$782.88 
↑9.6% 
$3.71M
ICX 
$2.6909 
↓1.6% 
$3.63M
NANO 
$9.7242 
↓0.6% 
$3.63M
AAVE 
$466.93 
↑5.7% 
$3.39M
GRT 
$1.5855 
↓0.6% 
$3.05M
OCEAN 
$1.4907 
↑2.0% 
$3.02M
KEEP 
$0.6183 
↑6.5% 
$2.98M
GNO 
$291.84 
↑14% 
$2.91M
SNX 
$18.448 
↓1.1% 
$2.72M
MANA 
$1.4419 
↓1.7% 
$2.67M
KAVA 
$6.2917 
↓2.8% 
$2.6M
BAT 
$1.4187 
↑0.6% 
$2.57M
CRV 
$3.5639 
↓2.6% 
$2.41M
KNC 
$3.4433 
↓2.6% 
$1.93M
REPV2 
$48.252 
↑1.0% 
$1.83M
OXT 
$0.6666 
↓1.1% 
$1.68M
BAL 
$69.63 
↑7.8% 
$1.52M
ANT 
$10.317 
↓3.2% 
$1.31M
YFI 
$54058. 
↑1.3% 
$1.3M
PAXG 
$1877.6 
↑0.8% 
$1.12M
EWT 
$13.644 
↓4.1% 
$772K
REP 
$46.85 
↓0.3% 
$714K
MLN 
$108.99 
↑0.5% 
$425K
TBTC 
$58915. 
↑1.6% 
$43.3K



#####################. Trading Volume by Asset. ##########################################

Trading Volume by Asset


The figures below break down the trading volume of the largest, mid-size, and smallest assets. Cryptos are in purple, fiats are in blue. For each asset, the chart contains the daily trading volume in USD, and the percentage of the total trading volume. The percentages for fiats and cryptos are treated separately, so that they both add up to 100%.

Figure 1: Largest trading assets: trading volume (measured in USD) and its percentage of the total trading volume (May 08 2021)



Figure 2: Mid-size trading assets: (measured in USD) (May 08 2021)



Figure 3: Smallest trading assets: (measured in USD) (May 08 2021)


###########. Daily Returns. #################################################

Daily Returns %


Figure 7: Returns over USD and XBT. Relative volume and return size is indicated by the size of the font. (May 08 2021)



###########. Disclaimer #################################################

The values generated in this report are from public market data distributed from Kraken WebSockets api. The total volumes and returns are calculated over the reporting day using UTC time.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://blog.kraken.com/post/9008/kraken-daily-market-report-for-may-08-2021/

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Blockchain

Legendary Pelé NFT Set to Drop on Ethernity May 8

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[Press Release – Los Angeles, California, 8th May, 2021]

Iconic Brazilian footballer Pelé will be immortalized in NFT form on May 8.

The legendary striker, named FIFA World Player of the Century, is getting the tokenized treatment with the release of a licensed aNFT – authenticated non-fungible token – exclusively on the Ethernity Chain at 12pm EST.

The coveted collection features several aNFTs of the soccer star, the result of a collaboration between Visual Lab and Rafa Zabala, whose credits include The Hobbit and Planet of the Apes.

The digital presentation includes “THE KING OF FOOTBALL,” an immersive video tracing the player’s humble origins on the streets of Brazil to a packed stadium witnessing his brilliance. The eponymous “Pelé” aNFT, meanwhile, is represented by a hyper-realistic digital bronze bust of the star in his heyday.

As part of the Pelé aNFT collection, Ethernity will be releasing multi-pack trading cards that make a nod to the player’s Panini trading cards of the past.

Ethernity’s special digital trading cards include “Gilded Bicycle Pelé,” which showcases the player executing his signature bicycle kick. The limited edition cards will be part of the Ethernity Cards and Packs Collection launching this summer, 2021.

90% of aNFT sales will go to The Pelé Foundation, a charitable organization that strives to empower young people facing poverty around the world.

Ethernity’s recent Muhammad Ali aNFT auction, which raised over $550,000, also resulted in a significant donation being made to the Muhammad Ali Foundation.

About Ethernity

Ethernity is exploring applications for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) within the context of art and philanthropy. It provides a way for celebrities and public figures to endorse digital artwork created by renowned artists. Anyone can purchase each limited edition artwork, with a portion of the proceeds going to charitable causes that the celebrity supports. Ethernity was founded by early Bitcoin investor and NFT innovator Nick Rose Ntertsas.

Learn more: http://ethernity.io/

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Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://cryptopotato.com/legendary-pele-nft-set-to-drop-on-ethernity-may-8/

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