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Second MultiChain 2.0 preview release

Per-asset permissions, capacity upgrading and inline metadata Today we’re pleased to unveil the second preview release of MultiChain 2.0. This makes substantial progress on the MultiChain 2.0 roadmap, and includes an important extra feature relating to asset permissions. Per-asset permissions Let’s start with the surprise. This release adds the ability to separately control the send… Read more »

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Per-asset permissions, capacity upgrading and inline metadata

Today we’re pleased to unveil the second preview release of MultiChain 2.0. This makes substantial progress on the MultiChain 2.0 roadmap, and includes an important extra feature relating to asset permissions.

Per-asset permissions

Let’s start with the surprise. This release adds the ability to separately control the send and receive permissions for each asset issued on the blockchain. This control is important in environments where each asset has different characteristics in terms of regulation, user identification requirements and so on.

At the time a new asset is issued, it can optionally be specified as receive- and/or send-restricted. Receive-restricted assets can only appear in transaction outputs whose address has receive permissions for that asset. Similarly, send-restricted assets can only be spent in transaction inputs by addresses which have per-asset send permissions. (Note that in all cases, addresses need global send and receive permissions to appear in inputs and outputs respectively.)

The send and receive permissions for an asset can be granted or revoked by any address which has admin or activate permissions for that asset. By default, these permissions are only assigned to the asset issuer, but the issuer (or any subsequently added asset administrator) can extend them to other addresses as well.

Blockchain parameter upgrades

One of the major features in development for MultiChain 2.0 is blockchain upgrading, to allow many of a chain’s parameters to be changed over time. This is vital because blockchains are designed to run for the long term, and it’s hard to predict how computer systems will be used many years after their creation.

MultiChain 1.0.x already provides a facility for upgrading a single parameter – the chain’s protocol version. This release of MultiChain 2.0 takes a significant step forwards, allowing changes to seven additional parameters related to blockchain performance and scaling. These include the target block time, maximum block size, maximum transaction size and maximum size of metadata.

As with other crucial operations relating to governance, upgrading a chain’s parameters can only be performed by the chain’s administrator(s), subject to a customizable level of consensus. We’re continuing to work on this feature, so look out for more upgradable parameters in future releases of MultiChain 2.0.

Inline metadata

MultiChain 1.0.x already supports unformatted (binary) transaction metadata, which can be embedded raw or wrapped in a stream item. The first preview release of MultiChain 2.0 extended this to allow metadata to be optionally represented in text or JSON format. In all of these cases the metadata appears in a separate transaction output containing an OP_RETURN, which makes the output unspendable by subsequent transactions.

This release of MultiChain 2.0 introduces a new type of metadata which we call “inline”. Inline metadata is stored within a regular spendable transaction output, and so is associated directly with that output’s address and/or assets. As with other forms of metadata, inline metadata can be in binary, text or JSON formats, and is easily writable and readable via a number of different APIs.

Inline metadata becomes truly powerful when used in conjunction with custom rules regarding transaction validity. One example is to send assets with an expiry date, or with a list of restrictions on where they can go next. In this release, custom validation rules can only be defined by modifying MultiChain’s C++ source code. However, once filters are implemented as part of the MultiChain 2.0 roadmap, these rules will be written in JavaScript and installed on a blockchain using regular API calls.

The road ahead

With this second preview/alpha release, we’ve completed about half of work scheduled for the open source Community edition of MultiChain 2.0. You can download and try out alpha 2 by visiting the MultiChain 2.0 preview releases page. On this page you’ll also find documentation for the new and enhanced APIs.

We’ve already started working on the next major feature for MultiChain 2.0, which we’re calling off-chain stream items. In an off-chain item, only a hash of the item’s payload is embedded inside the chain, alongside the item’s keys and some other metadata. The payload itself is stored locally by the publisher and propagated to the stream’s subscribers using peer-to-peer file sharing techniques, with the on-chain hash providing verification. The result is a huge improvement in the scalability and performance of blockchains used to record large amounts of information, where some of this information is only of interest to certain participants. While not originally planned for MultiChain 2.0, this feature rose up our list of priorities in response to user demand.

As always, we welcome your feedback on the progress of MultiChain 2.0, and look forward to delivering the next preview release in due course.

 

Please post any comments on LinkedIn.

 

Source: https://www.multichain.com/blog/2018/01/second-multichain-2-0-preview-release/

Blockchain

‘Bitcoin maxis’ like Solana, but is there sound logic to that

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Recent changes in cryptocurrency market dynamics have fueled the popularity of altcoins like Solana [SOL]. It recently became one of the most trending blockchain platforms around on the back of its surging price.

The cryptocurrency, in fact, had a 1-year ROI of over 4,200%, despite dropping by 34% since its peak in early September. Despite the latest hiccup in value, however, market observers believe the project has managed “winning over a significant number of Bitcoin Maxis or near-maxis.”

Ikigai Funds’ Travis Kling offered this observation on Twitter when he said,

“After talking to a bunch of folks over the last couple months, it’s pretty clear that SOL is successfully winning over a significant number of BTC Maxis or near-maxis, which have previously owned zero ETH or very little ETH.”

While the crypto-space is competitive, the tech-twist to the age-old saying – “competition of your competition is your ally” also holds true. Solana is not competing with Bitcoin. Instead, it is competing with Ethereum’s position in decentralized finance, NFTs, and smart contract offerings. Given the fact that transacting on Ethereum is still a pain for some users, Solana’s cheap and fast transactions provide a better alternative to many.

Solana’s DeFi projects recently crossed $3 billion, despite Ethereum hosting the maximum number of DeFi and NFT projects. While Bitcoin “maxis” are also opting-in for smart contracts, they prefer SOL over ETH, according to Kling.

Why? According to the exec,

“I think maxis look at ETH vs SOL and think –

Well as long as its not going to be all that decentralized, might as well have a smart contract platform that can actually handle enough throughput with cheap enough fees where it can really scale, instead getting choked up like ETH.”

However, not everyone agrees with Kling’s opinions. Many believe the decentralization narrative to be wrongly used by Kling, with another Twitter user @mikemcg0 noting that Ethereum is “more decentralized than BTC.” Anyone can run an Ethereum validator,” he said, “but only a select few oligopolies can mine BTC.”

Even so, Bitcoin mining has spread out even more after the recent China crackdown. Although the process is extensive in terms of effort, time, and money, according to another user, “anyone can” mine BTC “if they have the entrepreneurial mindset.”

Now, the latest outage faced by Solana did raise questions about the level of centralization. However, that has not really discouraged those who want to indulge in DeFi, NFTs, and smart contracts. As Solana forges new contracts with Hacken Foundation and Gate.io, others institutions like Osprey Funds and Grayscale are in a race to include Solana in their respective bouquet of products.

In fact, Osprey Funds has already registered Osprey Solana Trust with the SEC.

‘Ethereum killer’ or not, Solana is en route to gaining more interest from the booming crypto-market. Even turning so-called BTC maxis in the process.

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Source: https://ambcrypto.com/bitcoin-maxis-like-solana-but-is-there-sound-logic-to-that

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Blockchain

Europe Now World’s Biggest Crypto Economy: Boasts Over $1T Worth of Transactions

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Central, Northern, and Western Europe (CNWE) has grown into the world’s largest cryptocurrency economy since July 2020. The region experienced a massive increase in trading activity since then– particularly in the DeFi space.

The European DeFi Boom

Data from Chainalysis shows that CNWE received over $1 trillion in cryptocurrency over the last year alone. This represents 25% of global trading activity. Furthermore, it is responsible for at least 25% of all crypto value received by other regions, including 34% of the value received in North America.

This makes the EU the most concentrated in the world in terms of cryptocurrency trading volume. This is partially due to increases in all forms of trading activity over the past year, coming mostly from institutional investors.

Large institutional transaction value grew from $1.4B in July 2020 to $46.3B in June 2021, coming to take up half of all CNWE trading activity. The most pronounced increases were seen on DeFi protocols, where over 80% of these large institutional transactions were sent in June.

The impact of DeFi is further established when ranking coins in terms of transaction activity in the region. Despite being the largest cryptocurrency by market cap, Bitcoin heavily trails Ethereum in transaction volume among large institutional investors. Additionally, DeFi protocols took up a majority share of funds received by cryptocurrency services in CNWE in June 2021.


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The Decline in Eastern Asia

CNWE has seen significant absolute increases in its crypto trading volume. However, its new place as the world’s largest trading hub is partly due to a sharp decline in market share held by Eastern Asia– the previous world leader.

In early 2019 the region held over 30% of global transaction volume. This figure has since fallen sharply to about 15% – less than CNWE, North America, and even Central and Southern Asia.

This may be related to China’s continued push to prevent and discourage crypto trading within its borders. China re-announced their ban on crypto trading in the country days ago, and have been moving to prevent all access to exchanges within the country.

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/europe-now-worlds-biggest-crypto-economy-boasts-over-1t-worth-of-transactions/

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Blockchain

Here’s why a multi-CBDC bridge is being tested on Ethereum

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The race to launch the first CBDC is one the world is following intently. While most have their eyes fixed on China’s digital yuan pilot, a group of countries has come together to take CBDCs a step further.

Phase 3 of Project Inthanon-LionRock saw BIS Innovation Hub Hong Kong Centre, the Digital Currency Institute of the People’s Bank of China, and the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates experiment with a multi-CBDC bridge or an mBridge.

What does this mean?

The mBridge initiative would ideally allow central banks in different countries to issue and redeem their own CBDCs across borders on a common platform – without having to depend on correspondent banks.

Meanwhile, commercial banks would be able to “submit peer-to-peer CBDC push payments.”

The BIS September 2021 report stated,

“If successful, an efficient, low cost, compliant and scalable multi-currency, multi-jurisdiction arrangement can provide a network of direct central bank collaboration, greatly increasing the potential for international trade flows and cross-border business at large.”

The report further clarified,

“The prototype demonstrates a substantial improvement in cross-border transfer speed from multiple days to seconds, as well as the potential to reduce several of the core cost components of correspondent banking.”

Here, it is also interesting to note that the project’s Phase 2 prototype was built on Ethereum. This was because the core layer of the prototype contained the blockchain ledger and smart contracts.

Notes on features

As a multiple CBDC project, regulation and compliance were functional requirements. Central banks would be able to monitor transactions in real-time, set balance limits, control the balance held by their commercial banks, and use data for surveillance.

Scalability was also part of the design to later onboard more participants and jurisdictions.

However, one complication was the wide difference in remittance charges across countries. While the global average was calculated to be 6.38% of the remitted sum, the report observed that even a percentage as low as 1% would be costly for payments in the millions of dollars.

An update from China

Alongside the mBridge project, China has also been steamrolling ahead with its CBDC program.

Changchun Mu, Director-General of the DCI of the People’s Bank of China. confirmed that e-CNY pilots have been taking place in 10 areas.

Mu added,

“Payment methods such as QR code and tap-and- go have been well-supported and innovative services such as dual-offline payment and wearable device payment have been tested for safety and efficiency.”

Meanwhile, Howard Lee, Deputy Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, suggested that an e-HKD could also be in the works.

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Source: https://ambcrypto.com/heres-why-a-multi-cbdc-bridge-is-being-tested-on-ethereum

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