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Putting some real skin in the game…




An overview of staking, stacking, and proofs for all the diamond hands out there

Photo by Maxim Hopman on Unsplash

There is no easy way to say this. Crypto is failing. Failing to deliver the revolution that it so readily promised the mainstreamers months ago. Turn away from your arcane and backwards institutions and let us provide you with unending security and borderless transfers away from corrupt countries and valueless currencies. Sound too good to be true? That’s because it is. No system can appear out of thin air and solve all of society’s legacy issues while bending all of our current industries to its will within a matter of months.

The reality is, crypto didn’t appear out of thin air. It has been on a steady trajectory towards mainstream adoption since 2013 thanks to the tireless work of the visionary and skilled teams that have dedicated their lives to the fray. From the conception of blockchain, every step forward has achieved more in terms of security, reliability, and viability. Before the full vision of Web 3.0 can be realized however, some longstanding conundrums from the very beginning of crypto are going to have to be won by duel. None of these quagmires are more relevant than Proof-of-Work vs. Proof-of-Stake.

Comparing these two consensus mechanisms in one broad stroke comes with several large caveats. The first one being that without PoW, none of this would be happening at all. So, respect needs to be given to the grandfather consensus mechanism of them all for the timeless achievements that it made, and for still powering BTC and ETH today. The genius design of PoW is that to unlock the value in the decentralized network, you need to solve a random and difficult mathematical puzzle. This prevents malicious actors from corrupting and gaming the system in their favor on a massive scale; and allows the entire system to function on its own with confidence in each transaction without the oversight of a third party. PoW is inherently difficult to corrupt as re-mining a single block on the blockchain would require re-mining all the subsequent blocks attached to it. This makes PoW too energy intensive to try and corrupt the entire network at one time, thus achieving security by a massive resource barrier.

PoW originated first, and as Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies have grown we now have more reliable data on how these systems operate. PoW is secure and tested, but resource intensive. Adapting it to a global scale to compete with current financial systems is a logistical nightmare. Mining needs to be done in pools to justify the cost-benefit ratios. This creates an inherent imbalance of power over who can possibly accumulate the most crypto resources depending on their mining capabilities at the start. This type of imbalance is exactly what the crypto community aims to eliminate through the democratization of exchanges; however, it isn’t fully realized yet.

Photo by Joel Overbeck on Unsplash

What is going to fix the inherent inefficiencies built into the original system? In the years since the Bitcoin and Ethereum whitepapers were published, some interesting things have occurred. Various companies have emerged to facilitate the development of products on each blockchain, and altcoins have diversified into their own community with varying degrees of success. How accessible each cryptocurrency is to individual participation and smart contract writing is a factor in the overall usefulness and longevity of the technology. This is where PoS comes in. PoS is an idea as old as PoW and allows users to mine or validate block transactions on the blockchain based how many coins or “stake” the user already has within the system.

PoS has not yet been fully realized; it is being built right now. This was always the plan as announced in the Ethereum 2 upgrades and vision. The upgrades directly address the issues of network congestion, disk space, and high energy consumption that currently plague the Ethereum and Bitcoin blockchains from the original PoW construction. PoS is being developed towards higher energy efficiency, lower entry barriers, strengthening decentralization, and the creation of shard chains. For Ethereum, users will need to stake 32 ETH in order to become a validator. The staking itself is a self-regulating system to encourage good behavior because users could lose stake by failing to validate or colluding the process intentionally. By validating in PoS, a user is saying that this new block is valid to enter the system through “attesting.” The beacon chain is currently being created to generate shard chains — separate blockchains that will need to be individually validated — but actually require less effort from validators because they will only need to run their individual shard and not the entire Ethereum chain. This process of splitting the chain into shards is less energy intensive for this reason.

Photo by John Adams on Unsplash

With all of the upgrades being planned for PoS, it will be interesting to see how the projects remaining on PoW can compete. PoW is the consensus mechanism that created the foundations that Bitcoin are built on, which is currently the most secure and leading blockchain in the world. However, for mainstream adoption to occur, the entry barriers and sheer resource consumption needed to mine and run Bitcoin will need to be equally as competitive for operation on a global scale. Fortunately, this problem has long been identified, and some creative innovations have been proposed to improve upon PoW without PoS. One of the most promising methods for improving current efficiency on Bitcoin is Proof-of-Transfer, otherwise known as PoX. This was proposed in May of 2020 by the creators of Stacks, a virtual blockchain that runs on top of Bitcoin that was launched in 2018. Every transaction on Stacks also happens on Bitcoin simultaneously. The issue that Stacks was faced with is that their transactions need to be separately validated by nodes that do not receive any rewards for their validating efforts. Proof-of-Burn was initially proposed to address this by allowing their own miners to compete to destroy blocks without consuming further electricity and then gain rewards in a new cryptocurrency. However, this mechanism is somewhat disincentivizing while the reward cryptocurrency remains less valuable or viable than Bitcoin.

In PoX, instead of destroying the blocks as occurs in PoB, PoX transfers the validated blocks to some other participant within the network, thus earning them rewards in the base cryptocurrency. PoX re-incentivizes activity on the network and can also be leveraged for generating developer funds over the lifetime of a new blockchain that won’t impact the value of the current cryptocurrency. While all other consensus mechanisms require a high upfront cost in terms of either electricity input, economic stake, or participation in destroying, PoX strikes a balance by leveraging a stable base blockchain such as Bitcoin to mint new blocks of another cryptocurrency. The Stacks Ecosystem is currently betting on Bitcoin as the most secure and well-established blockchain to lead the future of this type of development towards Web 3.0 powered by PoX. What is initially required to become an active participant in either PoX or PoS is compared below.



How Archer Swap Has Helped End Ethereum’s Bidding War





Most DeFi users have heard of Ethereum’s high congestion issues, but few are aware of the controlling forces operating behind the scenes, and how badly they can be impacted by this single problem. When traders send a regular transaction via the Ethereum network, it is susceptible to attacks from bots or front-running software run by entities seeking to profit from trader activity.

Ethereum’s ecosystem is perhaps amongst the fastest growing in the crypto space. Thus, there are already many solutions that tackle this issue and operate for the benefit of the users and decentralized exchange (DEX) traders. Most of them have gone under the radar.

Archer Swap is part of the Archer DAO, a project with features designed to mitigate the risks associated with sending transactions on Ethereum. It protects users from Miner Extractable Value (MEV) strategies, sandwich attacks, and front-running bots while maintaining a connection with Uniswap and SushiSwap, two of the most popular DEXs on Ethereum.

In this sense, Archer Swap can be described as a DEX extension that enhances the trader experience on these dApps. This protocol combines two powerful sets of features that give traders improved operations on Ethereum – protecting them and making trades more cost-efficient.

The first set of benefits are called Archer MEV Shield. Besides protecting transactions from bot attacks, it allows users to eliminate failed transaction fees, a recurring problem on Ethereum. Traders can also cancel transactions at no additional cost.

The second feature is called Archer Trader Extractable Value (TEV), a proprietary and innovative concept introduced by Archer Swap. Operating within the Archer Relay, Archer TEV uses automated rebalancing transactions with bots to sync market prices when big market moves occur.

After a trade or a big swap, there is usually an arbitrage opportunity in a market. Archer TEV uses these opportunities to capture the value and redistribute it to Archer Swap users. In essence, Archer TEV takes revenue generated by Archer Swap and gives it back to one of the protocol’s core components, the traders.

Archer Swap Launches Campaign To Reward Traders

Following a community vote, Archer DAO recently launched a 6-week campaign to buy back and distribute its native token ARCH. In this way, the protocol can reward early adopters. The tokens will be acquired with the revenue generated by Archer TEV.

The protocol won’t have to touch its treasury reserves to attract new users to the platform. The protocol and the users will benefit – as more users trade on Archer Swap, the campaign will have more resources to acquire and distribute ARCH. Therefore, the token will most likely see an increase in buying pressure during the coming weeks, and the platform will see a surge in the number of users.

Archer DAO will distribute rewards every Friday from June 11th to July 16th, 2021. The platform will calculate rewards for each user based on their transacted volume for each week. The rewards will be delivered automatically and with basically 0 risk for the users, all they need to do is trade.

Archer Swap has had famous trades. In May, during the high of the dog meme coins, the inventor of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, used Archer Swap to dump his supply of Shiba Inu (SHIB), AKITA, MIRI, ELON, and others into the market.

The dump served a good cause, as Vitalik used this money to send over $1 billion to different charity organizations. The most notable is the Covid-19 relief campaign for India started by Polygon’s co-founder, Sandeep Nailwal. This trade could be among the most famous in 2021 and was enabled by a protocol whose main objective is to shield its users and give them back the power to operate safely within the Ethereum dark forest.


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Crypto Crash Trends On Twitter As Bitcoin Falls Below $30,000





Twitter has gone into a frenzy after bitcoin fell below $30,000 this morning. The hashtag #cryptocrash is currently trending on the platform. This is after the coin broke the $30,000 stronghold and fell below it. A price that has been a stronghold for bitcoin for a while now. Speculations were that as long as the asset didn’t fall below $30,000, then there would be a recovery.

Related Reading | Galaxy Digital CEO: Bitcoin Dips Should Be Bought Despite BitMEX News

Bitcoin has been in a downtrend for a couple of days now. News of mining rigs closing down in China pushing the price even further down. Falling below $30,000 means bitcoin is about to erase its gains for 2021. The coin was trading at $29,001 n December 2020. Only breaking the $30,000 barrier in 2021. Now bitcoin is trading at only 3% gains for the year 2021.

Bear Market Trends

Richard Bernstein was on Trading Nation two weeks ago to talk about the trends in bitcoin. The CEO called bitcoin a bubble. He pointed out that bitcoin was currently in a bull market. Noting that people were leaving the markets that were actually in a bull market behind.

Chart showing bitcoin crash below $30,000

Bitcoin crashes below $30,000 before recovering back up to $32,000 | Source: BTCUSD on

Bitcoin has been struggling for the past two months. This was after the coin finally hit the all-time high of $64k in April. There was a lot of speculation that the coin was headed for $100k. But it seems the asset had other plans.

Analysts have compared this to the 2018 crash. When bitcoin hit a new ATH of nearly $20k and then proceeded to lose 80% of its value. At one point trading at a little over $3k.

There Is Still Hope For Bitcoin

Mike Novogratz was on CNBC earlier to talk about the price drop below $30,000. Novogratz said that while he was less happy than he was at $60,000, he still hopeful about the coin.

Novogratz further explained that calling a bottom on the crash is hard to do. This he attributed to the large liquidations currently taking place across a number of assets.

With regards to the $30,000 price level, Novogratz said, “We’ll see if it holds on the day. We might plunge below it for a while and close above it.”

Related Reading | Over 3 Metric Tons Of Bitcoin Mining Rigs Airlifted Out Of China

The co-founder of Galaxy Digital noted that he wasn’t worried about the price crash. Explaining that he does not expect another crash of the 2017 magnitude to occur again. This he chalked up to the maturity of the ecosystem. Pointing out that much more mature players are now moving into the system.

“Every single bank is working on their own crypto project, how they can get bitcoin to their wealthy clients. I think a lot of clients that didn’t buy it the first time will see this as an opportunity to buy it and get involved.

– Mike Novogratz, CEO of Galaxy Digital

Twitter users have taken to the platform to express their opinions on the current market movements. There are countless tweets asking people to not panic. That the market is going to recover. And right now, it is starting to look like they’re right as the market has gone back into the green. Bitcoin is currently back up to $32k, after a dramatic price drop below $30k.

Featured image from Forbes, chart from


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Asia Broadband Forays into Crypto with Gold-backed Token and Exchange





Asset-backed tokens have long offered significant promise to transform the world of finance and investing. 24/7 trading, instant settlement, and fractionalization are just a few of the benefits offered when assets are recreated as cryptocurrencies on a blockchain. From the perspective of the cryptocurrency investor, tokens backed by real-world assets may also offer an opportunity to hedge a portfolio against some of crypto’s notorious volatility, which has once again been in evidence over recent weeks.

The traditional hedging instrument of choice, gold, is ripe for tokenization. Owning physical gold comes with issues such as storage and security, not to mention that it’s a relatively illiquid asset. Instruments such as ETFs may not offer the same direct exposure to gold prices. In contrast, gold-backed tokens are directly linked to gold prices and provide a fast and easy way to buy and sell gold, introducing new liquidity to the markets.

Over recent years, several firms have attempted to launch a version of tokenized gold; however, there has been an absence of operators from within the gold sector itself. Now, Asia Broadband, Inc. (OTC: AABB), a resource company focused on the production, supply, and sale of precious and base metals, has released its own gold-backed token.

For the 25-year-old US firm, it’s the first foray into the world of digital assets. And for the cryptocurrency space, it’s the first time an established player has emerged with a vertically integrated “Mine-to-Token” concept.

About Asia Broadband and AABBG

Asia Broadband was established in 1996, producing and supplying precious and base metals from Mexico to clients based in Asia. It’s now a US-listed company, delivering value to shareholders through its vertical integration approach to its value chain. In 2020, the company achieved an all-time high annual gross profit of $16.8 million, and over $100 million in assets for its first quarter of 2021.

The shift into cryptocurrency has come about thanks to the direction of the company’s president, CEO, COO, and Director, Chris Torres. Despite being a long-established business and finance leader, he has an aptitude for technology and possesses extensive knowledge of cryptocurrency investing. As a result, Asia Broadband has now released the AABB Gold (AABBG) token.

The company believes there’s a significant market for investors interested in owning cryptocurrencies as a digital store of value but who are likely to be put off by the inherent volatility in the crypto markets.

AABBG is backed by the gold mines owned and operated by Asia Broadband, along with $30 million in physical gold reserves. The company has made a public pledge to back 100% AABBG by gold reserves, supplied uniquely by its own mining operations, with third-party sources used only as a backup.

This vertically integrated “mine-to-token” concept is completely unique. Investors can benefit from knowing that they’re dealing with an established, US-listed firm and gain exposure to gold without any of the existing challenges.

Price and Demand

The minimum token price is pegged to the current spot price of gold, which means the token benefits from the lower volatility of gold relative to the cryptocurrency space, offering a sense of stability. Given fears of devalued fiat currencies, the bull case for gold remains intact, and AABBG could also rise as a function of increasing gold prices. As the price of gold fluctuates, the floor for AABBG tokens can change, but the potential upside price of the token will be driven by market demand.

It’s also worth noting that Asia Broadband’s experience and network in the gold sector also offer significant potential to drive demand. As the company has put extensive focus on the vertical integration of its own sales network in Asia, these global relationships provide the potential for cross-selling and deeper liquidity.

AABBG launched in March and, within two weeks, had sold $1 million worth of tokens. It’s now developing a proprietary exchange to allow AABBG holders to trade their tokens for various cryptocurrencies.

The entry of established professional firms to the asset-backed token sector could be just what it needs to get kick-started. With industry expertise, global networks in the business, and innovative business models, it’s evident that they’d have plenty to bring to the table.

Image by Daniel Dino-Slofer from Pixabay


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