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Public health guidance on screening and vaccination for infectious diseases in newly arrived migrants within the EU/EEA



The main objective of this guidance is to provide scientific advice, based on an evidence-based assessment of targeted public health interventions, to facilitate effective screening and vaccination for priority infectious diseases among newly arrived migrant populations to the EU/EEA. It is intended to support EU/EEA Member States to develop national strategies to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control among migrants and meet the health needs of these populations.  

Increased rates of migration to and within the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in recent years has made the development of migration policy, including health policy, a priority for the region. A migrant is defined as any individual who lives in a country temporarily or permanently away from his or her usual place of residence for at least a year. Migrants do not generally pose a health threat to the host population. However, some subgroups of migrants, including refugees, asylum seekers, and irregular migrants are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases and may have worse health outcomes than the host population. In a number of EU/EEA Member States, subgroups of migrant populations are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C. Consequently, screening and vaccination programmes may be of benefit for newly arrived migrants, i.e. those who have arrived in the EU/EEA within the past five years.  

The European health policy framework ‘Health 2020’ aims to ‘significantly improve the health and well-being of populations, reduce health inequalities, strengthen public health and ensure people-centred health systems that are universal, equitable, sustainable and of high quality’. ECDC has sought to support this aim in migrant health by developing evidence-based guidance on the prevention of infectious diseases among newly arrived migrants in the EU/EEA.

Objective, method and approach

The main objective of this guidance is to provide scientific advice, based on an evidence-based assessment of targeted public health interventions, to facilitate effective screening and vaccination for priority infectious diseases among newly arrived migrant populations to the EU/EEA. It is intended to support EU/EEA Member States to develop national strategies to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control among migrants and meet the health needs of these populations.  

The guidance has been developed using a series of systematic evidence reviews and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) evidence-to-decision framework, as well as drawing on the opinions of an ad hoc scientific panel through a consultation and assessment process. ECDC appointed a scientific panel consisting of 21 experts from EU/EEA Member States to review the evidence and express opinions on the evidence-based statements that relate to vulnerable migrant groups. None of the members of the panel declared any conflicts of interest with regard to the topic and their participation in the panel. In addition to the scientific panel, ECDC established an advisory group of experts in infectious disease, public health and migration to participate in meetings in order to select the key infectious diseases for which guidance is needed and to support the review process.  

The advisory group and ad hoc scientific panel selected the following key infectious diseases for consideration: active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), vaccine-preventable diseases (measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B, strongyloidiasis, and schistosomiasis.

Key overarching questions were:

  • Should newly arrived migrants be offered screening for active TB, LTBI, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, strongyloidiasis, and schistosomiasis? Who should be targeted and how?
  • Should newly arrived migrants be offered vaccination for measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) and hepatitis B?
  • What are the implementation considerations in EU/EEA countries?

The approach involved developing key research questions (PICO: population, intervention, comparison, outcome) and an analytic framework to identify key steps and questions related to evidence of effectiveness along the screening– intervention pathway, in order to formulate search strategies and identify relevant literature.

Search terms and strategies appropriate for each infectious disease were used to search for published literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Embase from January 2005 to May 2016; grey literature and existing guidelines were also identified. In developing the guidance, ECDC sought to build on existing systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials; in addition, newly developed additional evidence reviews were used to address gaps in the evidence base. The systematic reviews that underpin this guidance were conducted in line with PRISMA reporting guidelines. 

The GRADE evidence-to-decision approach was used to frame evidence and develop statements, and to rate the strength of the evidence-based statements. Evidence-based statements were developed and graded through an iterative consensus process with the advisory group and ad hoc scientific panel. The ad hoc scientific panel members completed a FACE survey (feasibility, acceptability, cost and equity), which was used to inform the guidance. GRADE Pro Panel Voice Software3 was used to review statements and vote on all evidence-to-decision criteria. The evidence review and guideline development process consisted of three rounds of review: of the evidence review findings, the draft evidence-based statements, and the draft guidance. Results This guidance focuses on newly arrived migrants within the EU/EEA, taking into consideration country of origin, circumstances of migration, and age and gender, where relevant.  Available evidence suggests that it likely to be effective and cost-effective to screen child, adolescent and adult migrants for active TB and LTBI, HIV, HCV, HBV, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, and that there is a clear benefit to enrolling migrants in vaccination programmes and ensuring catch-up vaccination where needed. This is, however, often conditional on the burden of disease in migrants’ countries of origin. 



GIBX Swap: Sky is the Limit for the Best Decentralized Exchange Platform

The era of decentralized exchanges has come with the maturity and application of digital technologies.



The value of GIBX Swap, which focuses on mainstream cryptocurrencies, is predicted to continue growing, shortly after its recent launch, and its price has the potential to reach record heights.

The first and leading decentralized exchange platform in the world has been launched on Sep.14,2021. Two days later, it is announced that GIBX Swap has started trading.

Meanwhile, due to its reputation, it has officially been listed on CoinMarketCap, the world’s most-referenced price-tracking website for cryptoassets in the rapidly growing cryptocurrency space. 

Decentralized tech and business

DeFi, shortened for Decentralized Finance, has been catching on since 2020. GIBX Swap holds the view that being decentralized is prerequisite to DEX. Traditional exchanges tend to be centralized.

On the one hand, it serves as information intermediaries, solving the issue of asymmetry of information to some extent; on the other hand, it create a new information asymmetry in favor of itself by the monopoly and manipulation of information, sometimes at the cost of the legitimate interests of clients.

No matter how the stock market performs, centralized exchanges can rely on charges and fees to guarantee their revenues.

As far as GIBX SWAP is concerned, the era of decentralized exchanges has come with the maturity and application of digital technologies. As a new type of exchange, the decentralized exchange makes the fullest use of the decentralization of blockchain, building peer-to-peer trust and transactions, with no intermediary.

The transaction links are all on the chain and performed directly by the open-source smart contract. As long as the user has and keeps the private key, he/she doesn’t have to worry about property security.

GIBX Swap features decentralized technologies with its brand-new block chain trading underlying platform, new generation of trading contract and cross-chain decentralized exchange, and complete business model with asset safety, market liquidity, trading fairness, ecological openness and transaction experience.

It aims to become the benchmark for DEX platforms and the leading DEX platform for token swaps.

GIBX Swap is an automated market maker (AMM) that allows a user to exchange two tokens. The liquidity provided to the exchange comes from Liquidity Providers (“LPs”) who stake their tokens in Liquidity Pools. In exchange, a user gets LP tokens that can also be staked to earn X tokens in the “Pool”.

Blockchain security protection from inside and outside

GIBX Swap puts emphasis on blockchain security protection. For one thing, it strengthens its own security from inside; for another thing, it has its smart contract technology code audited. Certik, the world’s leading block chain security audit institution has provided an audit for the project.

Established by the research team from Yale University and Columbia University with a decade of research, Certik has been providing code security audit services for blockchain applications and smart contracts, and the highest level of code security solution.

It is announced that GIBX Swap has passed the Certik security audit, which is carried out in a comprehensive review from Static Analysis, On-chain Monitoring, Social Sentiment, Governance & Autonomy, Market Volatility and Safety Assessment in search of potential safety hazards and possible production vulnerabilities.

It is confirmed once again after the audit by Certik that the technical code delivered by GIBX Swap is at a very high level of security, and GIBX Swap has the initiative to perform security tests.

Price predicted to reach new high 

GIBX Swap is highly committed to the supplier of true value, fairness, and innovation to decentralized finance through high-quality products and services.

It aims to become a benchmark for DEX platforms and take up the mantle of becoming the leading DEX platform on the market for token swaps. GIBX Swap is fast, secure no which anyone can swap and earn tokens.

A growing number of people has been paid attention to GIBX Swap ever since its launch. There have been over 46,000 followers in twitter, and more than 90,000 members in its TG.

GIBX Swap has shown strong potential lately and this could be a good chance to invest. Its value is expected to continue to expand, as shortage tends to encourage price rise.

In terms of price, GIBX Swap has an outstanding potential to reach new heights. X is forecast to increase in value. GIBX Swap can hit the highest price of $23.62 till 2030.

GIBX Swap is affiliated to GIBX, an international comprehensive Internet brokerage firm created by GIB Global Investment Bank & Capital Trust and a digital asset trading platform covering forex functions. GIBX has teamed up with world-renowned cryptocurrency platforms and top liquidity providers, including but not limited to: CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko, JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs etc. in order to provide users a more transparent and convenient trading experience. As a financial trading platform regulated by international authorities such as FCA, ASIC, NFA, GIBX strictly follows all rules and regulations and uses reliable risk management solutions to ensure the safety of users’ capital.

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Coinbase scores $1.3 million deal with US government even after SEC alarms




Coinbase, the largest crypto exchange in the United States has been able to secure a new deal with the United States’ Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) office which would see it use its Coinbase Analytics tool for undisclosed purposes. Per available information, the government agency will be paying as high as $1.36 million as licensing fee to the Brian Armstrong-led crypto exchange.

Coinbase, US agencies partnerships

In proof of the exchange capability,’s database indicated that the crypto firm was the “only vendor” who could provide the services needed by the ICE. However, details of the kind of information Coinbase would be sharing or analyzing remain obscure.

It is interesting to note that the ICE is a branch of the U.S. Homeland Security. It is in charge of investigating cross-border crimes and also to check the influx of illegal migration into the United States.

The Armstrong-led exchange has also seen its Coinbase Analytics tool enjoy some level of patronage from different government agencies. Earlier in the year, it inked a deal with Secret Service which contracted the exchange until 2024 and would see it use the firm’s blockchain forensics tools.

Apart from the security agencies, other government agencies like the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) have also shown an interest in analytics tools for their various operations or investigations.

Critics lambast Coinbase’s partnerships

The exchange has also faced some criticism from onlookers who believe it is cashing on its users’ information as its government partnerships run against the core tenet of the crypto industry which is privacy.

One such critic is DJ Booth, who once said “Coinbase collect private information about their customers due to AML regulations, track customer transactions before and after exiting Coinbase, and then onsell that private information and public data to law enforcement, all without ethical remorse. OK, it’s just business.”

However, despite the amorous relationship between Coinbase and some of the government agencies, the exchange has enjoyed a somewhat frothy relationship with its regulator, the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) who recently hinted that it could sue the exchange if it proceeds with its plans to provide lending services to its users.

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Solana, Polkadot, Algorand: What is the Bitcoin effect on these altcoins



With the market trading in red today pretty much all coins including Bitcoin and Ethereum are falling. However, there are some coins that made excellent gains in the last 2 months which are now facing huge price falls as well.

Which alts though?

Solana, Polkadot, and Algorand were three altcoins that successfully rallied between July and August. Polkadot rose from $12.34 all the way to $34.45 registering a 214.33% growth. Similar gains were observed for Algorand as the coin breached $2 and marked a 230.26% rise. 

The most gains were seen by Solana holders though mainly because the altcoin shot up 713.94%. An increase this high was the result of the NFT hype which took it up from $26.68 to $191.07

Solana’s 713% rise | Source: TradingView – AMBCrypto

In fact, Solana and Algorand even registered new all-time highs during this time period. But each of these coins is now observing significant price falls as well. 

In the last 24 hours ALGO fell by 15.26%, DOT came down by 14.37% and SOL lost 16.8% of its price as of press time.

A huge reason behind this fall is also their exhausted momentum since even after the September 7 fall, DOT and ALGO witnessed another price rise before they finally hit a slowdown.

Algorand’s 15.26% drop | Source: TradingView – AMBCrypto

Owing to this investors are possibly getting rid of their holdings in both spot and derivatives markets. Sell volumes at the time of this report have increased and liquidations rose to millions for all 3 altcoins. Since SOL gained the most, it lost the most as well and its liquidations touched $25 million.

Solana liquidations at $25 million | Source: Coinalyze – AMBCrypto

Can Bitcoin save them?

Well since Bitcoin’s price movement commands the market’s movement it is obvious that BTC needs to reduce losses first. But more importantly, these assets’ correlation to Bitcoin will determine how much they will be affected by BTC. Right now Algorand is at the lowest at 0.57, followed by Solana at 0.7, and at the highest is Polkadot (0.88)

However, surprisingly, investors are most positive about Algorand of all three hoping for a recovery soon.

Investor sentiment | Source: Santiment – AMBCrypto

Once Bitcoin and Ethereum change their movement, other coins would follow suit. And that’s when some recovery can be expected.

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