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Public health guidance on screening and vaccination for infectious diseases in newly arrived migrants within the EU/EEA

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The main objective of this guidance is to provide scientific advice, based on an evidence-based assessment of targeted public health interventions, to facilitate effective screening and vaccination for priority infectious diseases among newly arrived migrant populations to the EU/EEA. It is intended to support EU/EEA Member States to develop national strategies to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control among migrants and meet the health needs of these populations.  

Increased rates of migration to and within the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in recent years has made the development of migration policy, including health policy, a priority for the region. A migrant is defined as any individual who lives in a country temporarily or permanently away from his or her usual place of residence for at least a year. Migrants do not generally pose a health threat to the host population. However, some subgroups of migrants, including refugees, asylum seekers, and irregular migrants are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases and may have worse health outcomes than the host population. In a number of EU/EEA Member States, subgroups of migrant populations are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C. Consequently, screening and vaccination programmes may be of benefit for newly arrived migrants, i.e. those who have arrived in the EU/EEA within the past five years.  

The European health policy framework ‘Health 2020’ aims to ‘significantly improve the health and well-being of populations, reduce health inequalities, strengthen public health and ensure people-centred health systems that are universal, equitable, sustainable and of high quality’. ECDC has sought to support this aim in migrant health by developing evidence-based guidance on the prevention of infectious diseases among newly arrived migrants in the EU/EEA.

Objective, method and approach

The main objective of this guidance is to provide scientific advice, based on an evidence-based assessment of targeted public health interventions, to facilitate effective screening and vaccination for priority infectious diseases among newly arrived migrant populations to the EU/EEA. It is intended to support EU/EEA Member States to develop national strategies to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control among migrants and meet the health needs of these populations.  

The guidance has been developed using a series of systematic evidence reviews and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) evidence-to-decision framework, as well as drawing on the opinions of an ad hoc scientific panel through a consultation and assessment process. ECDC appointed a scientific panel consisting of 21 experts from EU/EEA Member States to review the evidence and express opinions on the evidence-based statements that relate to vulnerable migrant groups. None of the members of the panel declared any conflicts of interest with regard to the topic and their participation in the panel. In addition to the scientific panel, ECDC established an advisory group of experts in infectious disease, public health and migration to participate in meetings in order to select the key infectious diseases for which guidance is needed and to support the review process.  

The advisory group and ad hoc scientific panel selected the following key infectious diseases for consideration: active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), vaccine-preventable diseases (measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B, strongyloidiasis, and schistosomiasis.

Key overarching questions were:

  • Should newly arrived migrants be offered screening for active TB, LTBI, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, strongyloidiasis, and schistosomiasis? Who should be targeted and how?
  • Should newly arrived migrants be offered vaccination for measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) and hepatitis B?
  • What are the implementation considerations in EU/EEA countries?

The approach involved developing key research questions (PICO: population, intervention, comparison, outcome) and an analytic framework to identify key steps and questions related to evidence of effectiveness along the screening– intervention pathway, in order to formulate search strategies and identify relevant literature.

Search terms and strategies appropriate for each infectious disease were used to search for published literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Embase from January 2005 to May 2016; grey literature and existing guidelines were also identified. In developing the guidance, ECDC sought to build on existing systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials; in addition, newly developed additional evidence reviews were used to address gaps in the evidence base. The systematic reviews that underpin this guidance were conducted in line with PRISMA reporting guidelines. 

The GRADE evidence-to-decision approach was used to frame evidence and develop statements, and to rate the strength of the evidence-based statements. Evidence-based statements were developed and graded through an iterative consensus process with the advisory group and ad hoc scientific panel. The ad hoc scientific panel members completed a FACE survey (feasibility, acceptability, cost and equity), which was used to inform the guidance. GRADE Pro Panel Voice Software3 was used to review statements and vote on all evidence-to-decision criteria. The evidence review and guideline development process consisted of three rounds of review: of the evidence review findings, the draft evidence-based statements, and the draft guidance. Results This guidance focuses on newly arrived migrants within the EU/EEA, taking into consideration country of origin, circumstances of migration, and age and gender, where relevant.  Available evidence suggests that it likely to be effective and cost-effective to screen child, adolescent and adult migrants for active TB and LTBI, HIV, HCV, HBV, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, and that there is a clear benefit to enrolling migrants in vaccination programmes and ensuring catch-up vaccination where needed. This is, however, often conditional on the burden of disease in migrants’ countries of origin. 

Source: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/public-health-guidance-screening-and-vaccination-infectious-diseases-newly

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Coin Metrics Report Details Surges in ETH, Doge Trading

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Digital currency research firm Coin Metrics has released a new report claiming that bitcoin is beginning to lag when compared with the likes of competing altcoins such as Ethereum and Dogecoin.

Coin Metrics: Altcoins Are Taking Over

While bitcoin is still the world’s number one digital currency by market cap (it is currently trading for about $35,000 per unit), the asset has experienced some serious dips over the past month, while by contrast, Dogecoin and Ethereum have exhibited gains and are regularly moving up the digital ladder.

Coin Metrics garnered much of the information for its report by looking at data from Binance, arguably the largest and most popular crypto exchange on the planet in terms of daily trading volume. Additional statistics were gathered from exchanges such as Coinbase and FTX. Coin Metrics points out that thus far, 2021 has been the year for “smaller altcoins,” suggesting that a great many of them have surged heavily between the months of January and early May. From there, however, a serious crypto crash has taken precedence, with Coin Metrics unable to pinpoint what, exactly, might have been the cause.

For the most part, numerous altcoin pairs are offered on Binance, which explains why the company’s trading volume for many of the world’s smaller assets likely overtook that of bitcoin. The report says:

ETH volume surpassed BTC volume on Coinbase by a wider margin than on Binance. Coinbase did not offer Dogecoin trading in May (although they introduced it in early June), so it did not have a Doge rush similar with Binance, but it did have a relatively high amount of volume for some other altcoins, led by MATIC, ADA and Ethereum Classic (ETC)… Continuing the trend, ETH volume edged out BTC on FTX, although not by much, but comparatively, the top altcoins made up a lower percentage of total volume on FTX than on Binance and Coinbase.

Some of the world’s smaller exchanges – such as Huobi – also saw Ethereum and Dogecoin trading surge to levels beyond what people were doing with bitcoin. The report continues to say:

Similar with Binance, DOGE volume surged on Huobi, taking the spot as the third most traded currency by volume.

Bitcoin Hasn’t Been Fully Cut Out Yet

The only place – according to the document – where bitcoin trading appears to remain dominant at the time of writing is the CME in Chicago, Illinois. The company delves in bitcoin futures trading and has recently opened the door to ETH futures, though this is still in its early stages. Coin Metrics writes:

The markets continued to move mostly sideways over the last week. Bitcoin and Ethereum usage both stayed relatively flat, with daily active addresses dropping 2.5 percent and growing by 3.3 percent, respectively. Ethereum daily transaction fees dropped by over 35 percent week over week as gas prices continued to fall, and bitcoin transaction fees followed a similar pattern, dropping by 40.5 percent.

Tags: bitcoin, Coin Metrics, dogecoin, Ethereum Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.livebitcoinnews.com/coin-metrics-report-details-surge-in-eth-doge-trading/

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Bitcoin Taproot upgrade finally achieves activation lock-in!

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The much-anticipated Bitcoin Taproot upgrade passed the Speedy Trial, which was a signaling period which gauged support for the upgrade from bitcoin’s mining sector. Since SegWit, Taproot has been touted as the next significant upgrade for Bitcoin.

Data from Taproot.watch, a webpage created by Bitcoin developer Hampus Sjöberg, released an interesting yet hilarious video to announce the completion of the lock-in stage.

On the official page, it read:

“This period has reached 1815 Taproot signaling blocks, which are required for lock-in.”

Different mining pools tweeted their support for the upgrade on their respective platforms with Slush Pool being the first to do so.

AntPool also supported the upgrade.

What’s next?

Bitcoin core developer Pieter Wuille further elaborated on the path leading to the full activation step for Taproot in a series of tweets. He stated:

“As of block 687284, Taproot signalling has reached 1815 blocks this period, guaranteeing that absent very deep reorgs, it is guaranteed to lock in. Following that, it will activate at block 709632, probably around mid-November 2021.”

He also addressed that ‘there is a lot of work left of course’, which included:

a) PSBT extensions to communicate Taproot keys/scripts/signatures,

b) MuSig2 standardization so the software can cooperate in signing,

c) Output descriptors,

Why is it so important?

Fred Thiel, CEO of Marathon Digital Holdings stated:

“With this upgrade, you’ll see Bitcoin to be the settlement network. Funds are transferred from one institution to another, say one bank to another.”

He added,

“The update would lower the data size of smart contracts, in turn lowering transaction costs. Taproot is also expected to enhance smart contract functionality and efficiency.”

Jeremy Rubin, a Bitcoin Core contributor and founder of Judica projected a similar optimistic narrative,

“With taproot, you get optimization of Bitcoin, much different from how people know Bitcoin today- little too inefficient or reveal too much information about what you’re trying to do. Taproot helps to be private and efficient.”


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Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://ambcrypto.com/bitcoin-taproot-upgrade-finally-achieves-activation-lock-in

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How to Change Valorant Chat Text Color?

Riot Games’ competitive shooter Valorant provides players with many ways to customize their weapon skins and player profiles. With a bunch of Deluxe Skins, Player Cards, and Titles, you can make your Valorant profile stand out from the crowd. However, did you know that you could change your in-game text chat color as well? If […]

The post How to Change Valorant Chat Text Color? appeared first on TalkEsport.

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Riot Games’ competitive shooter Valorant provides players with many ways to customize their weapon skins and player profiles. With a bunch of Deluxe Skins, Player Cards, and Titles, you can make your Valorant profile stand out from the crowd. However, did you know that you could change your in-game text chat color as well?

If you’re looking for ways to make your chat stand out from the rest, you have come to the right place.

Unknown to many, Valorant has an option to change the color of your text chat, and it’s as simple as inputting some codes in your chat while typing.

Here’s a list of all the codes that you need to know to change your text color in team chat or all-chat:

Valorant Text Chat Color Codes

  • Red: <enemy>Text</>
  • Blue: <team>Text</>
  • Yellow: <system>Text</>
  • Green: <notification>Text</>
  • Pink: <warning>Text</>

So the next time you want to emphasize your words a bit more, remember to add these color codes before starting your actual message for some extra flavor.

To do so, simply copy the above-mentioned codes and replace the “Text” by whatever you wish to type in chat.

Recommended | Valorant New Agent 16 Release Date, Abilities, and More

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Source: https://www.talkesport.com/guides/how-to-change-valorant-chat-text-color/

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