Connect with us

Blockchain

Plugging into C-Lightning: The Future of Lightning Plugins Is Bright

Plugging into C-Lightning: The Future of Lightning Plugins Is Bright

The post Plugging into C-Lightning: The Future of Lightning Plugins Is Bright appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Trying to navigate the different Lightning implementations can be a challenge. Although there were initially three implementations: c-lightning, eclair and lnd, more continue to come out of the woodwork all the time with ptarmigan, rust-lightning and Electrum the most recent to enter the fray.

Often, it seems developers and aspiring developers choose to use or contribute to a particular implementation based on the language it is written in. Familiar with Scala? Choose eclair. Excited by the potential of Rust? Choose rust-lightning. However, there are other key considerations such as the aims, design philosophies, use cases and trade offs of the different implementations. In addition, just because an implementation is written in a certain language doesn’t necessarily mean that you are required to code in that language to contribute to the ecosystem around that implementation.

The emerging contrasts between the lnd and rust-lightning implementations were explored on a panel at Breaking Bitcoin 2019 and in this Bitcoin Magazine article. Whilst lnd seeks to take the load off developers and provide ultimate functionality out of the box, rust-lightning seeks to offer ultimate flexibility with developers encouraged to bring their own components and slot them in. 

In contrast, c-lightning offers a third way. It maintains a robust and secure core that is designed to not be tweaked or replaced by the developer. Flexibility and additional functionality is available through the use of plugins that can be written by the developer in various languages such as Python or Go. The aim is for the c-lightning ecosystem to emerge as a testbed for experimenting with new cutting edge features, previously the terrain of other implementations such as lnd and eclair, without sacrificing the performance and robustness of the core.

Plugins are subprocesses that are started by the main lightningd daemon. They work in cooperation with lightningd. Any plugins that are surplus to requirements do not need to be run. Some plugins do need certain hooks to be introduced into lightningd that will notify the plugins about internal events and/or alter the behavior of lightningd.

The First C-Lightning Plugins

Blockstream has a series of Medium blog posts to showcase some of the first plugins written by the c-lightning team. These include the “Summary” plugin which provides a summary of node status including satoshis onchain, what that amounts to in fiat terms, number of peers, number of channels, how balanced are they, etc. 

The “Probe” plugin determines whether there is a route to make a payment to a certain node in the network, returns the fee level required and indicates which channel(s) are preventing a successful payment. This can be used to prepare the groundwork for a future payment or merely to explore the topology of the network. 

The “Prometheus” plugin collects data on the performance of your node to provide visualizations and alerts. With all of these plugins you could choose to contribute to the plugin by adding a feature or building your own from scratch.

Community Plugins

In total there are 16 “community curated” plugins for c-lightning available at the time of writing. These include an autopilot plugin ported from a library built by Rene Pickhardt. Autopilots decide which nodes to open channels with on behalf of the user. The user needs to tell the autopilot the percentage of funds under their control, the number of channels to be opened and the minimum channel size. The autopilot also needs to be notified by lightningd when channels are opened and closed by remote parties. Building an effective autopilot is challenging as user preferences, such as maximizing the probability of a successful payment, can conflict with network health, such as the level of decentralization. 

There is also a rebalance plugin, which moves liquidity between the user’s channels to ensure there is sufficient incoming and outgoing liquidity; and an invoiceless payment plugin, which allows a user to make a payment without first receiving an invoice. When running c-lightning you can choose to turn on or off any combination of these plugins.

As Lisa Neigut (@niftynei) said in her tweetstorm, c-lightning doesn’t provide “a standardized HTTP accessible interface out of the box nor an authentication scheme” for third-party app developers like lnd does. But community-built plugins offer the opportunity to build equivalents for c-lightning that exist in other implementations. 

Kristaps Kaupe has started a GitHub repo for plugins emulating some lnd commands. Other plugin authors worth highlighting are Richard Bondi, who has written a collection of plugins in Go, including a plugin to ban peers; fiatjaf, who has written a plugin implementing LN URL to help the payer interact with the payee; and Conor Scott, who has written a number of plugins in Python including a plugin to create channels with top capacity nodes. Finally, Justin Moon has built a proof-of-concept plugin to fund Lightning channels with hardware wallets.

The Challenges of Plugins

Although this plugin architecture seems to offer the best of both worlds, it does present some challenges and potential downsides. It is not clear at this stage whether the ultimate flexibility of rust-lightning will mean it is better suited for existing Bitcoin wallets seeking to integrate Lightning into their existing codebase.

In addition, as the number of community plugins multiply and the value of Bitcoin relying on these plugins increases, security and curation are going to be critical. There will inevitably be duplication and overlap between plugins. 

Curation is challenging because it effectively recommends (unofficially, caveat emptor) which plugins should be used and which shouldn’t. Without curation, it becomes impossible for users and developers to get started quickly without examining all of the competing plugins. There is an argument that some languages (and some developers!) are better suited to writing security-critical software. However, the particularly dangerous JSON-RPC methods can only be installed with the developer option and are only intended for testing and debugging with the assistance of the c-lightning team. There is also guidance available on the dangers a plugin developer might incur when taking advantage of a particular hook that can change the default behavior of c-lightning.

It is not the case that this approach creates a perfectly permissionless environment for developers, as some future plugins will still require additional hooks to be merged into the c-lightning codebase by the c-lightning team. For example, a hook to facilitate a watchtower plugin is in discussion at the time of writing. It is possible that some hooks won’t be merged due to security concerns or implementation details.

It remains to be seen whether instances of c-lightning nodes running different sets of plugins cause compatibility issues between c-lightning nodes or with other implementations. It is already challenging to ensure compatibility between different implementations, assuming c-lightning nodes are all running the same release. Experimentation is important, though, and lessons from this experimentation will prove invaluable when finalizing the BOLT specifications for the Lightning protocol.

London Bitcoin Devs

The opportunity to build and play around with new plugins in a wide selection of different languages is drawing developers into building on top of c-lightning. Antoine Poinsot (@darosior) came to London to present at the London Bitcoin Devs meetup in March 2020. Poinsot is developing a plugin manager called Reckless which will offer a selection of plugins to the user and start the chosen plugins dynamically. He has also built an RPC command hook which allows a plugin to take over any RPC command and change it. This is potentially reckless and experimental as RPC commands are how users interact with lightningd. If RPC commands can be accepted, rejected or changed it opens up a number of use cases but also possibilities for users to lose their funds.

This RPC command hook formed the basis of Rusty Russell’s most recent presentation at the online Boltathon 2. There is still a whole swathe of plugins that could be built from trampoline routing to HODL invoices, and Christian Decker expects “There’s already a plugin that does that” to become a meme. In that case, Decker and the c-lightning community may just have their work cut out curating this emerging jungle of plugins.

Thanks to Antoine Poinsot and Christian Decker for their contributions to this article.

The post Plugging into C-Lightning: The Future of Lightning Plugins Is Bright appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

Source: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/plugging-into-c-lightning-the-future-of-lightning-plugins-is-bright?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=plugging-into-c-lightning-the-future-of-lightning-plugins-is-bright

Blockchain

Kraken Daily Market Report for April 12 2021

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Overview


  • Total spot trading volume at $1.74 billion, up from the 30-day average of $1.34 billion.
  • Total futures notional at $555.7 million.
  • The top five traded coins were, respectively, Bitcoin, Tether, Ethereum, Ripple, and Cardano.
  • Strong returns from Uniswap (+25%) and Flow (+11%).

April 12, 2021 
 $1.74B traded across all markets today
 Crypto, EUR, USD, JPY, CAD, GBP, CHF, AUD 
XBT 
$59918. 
↓0.3% 
$641.7M
USDT 
$0.9994 
↑0.03% 
$317.0M
ETH 
$2135.2 
↓0.9% 
$216.1M
XRP 
$1.3753 
↑1.9% 
$126.6M
ADA 
$1.2994 
↑2.6% 
$84.1M
USDC 
$0.9999 
↑0.0% 
$46.7M
DOT 
$40.310 
↓2.6% 
$39.1M
LTC 
$245.33 
↓2.9% 
$34.7M
TRX 
$0.1331 
↑8.9% 
$33.3M
FLOW 
$37.468 
↑11% 
$30.6M
UNI 
$37.402 
↑25% 
$23.6M
FIL 
$166.62 
↓7.0% 
$18.9M
XLM 
$0.5751 
↓1.0% 
$18.6M
XDG 
$0.0712 
↓3.4% 
$17.9M
XMR 
$321.10 
↓2.8% 
$17.9M
LINK 
$32.707 
↓3.9% 
$12.3M
MANA 
$1.0822 
↑1.0% 
$11.5M
BCH 
$669.88 
↓3.0% 
$11.0M
SC 
$0.0266 
↓3.5% 
$9.87M
ALGO 
$1.4637 
↓4.1% 
$9.85M
GRT 
$2.0962 
↑9.6% 
$9.61M
AAVE 
$403.67 
↑8.4% 
$9.51M
ATOM 
$22.173 
↓5.6% 
$9.42M
KSM 
$428.66 
↓2.4% 
$9.33M
EOS 
$6.4521 
↓4.5% 
$7.34M
XTZ 
$6.2194 
↓3.5% 
$6.97M
ZEC 
$218.94 
↓1.5% 
$5.36M
DASH 
$277.71 
↓3.4% 
$4.59M
STORJ 
$2.4142 
↓0.7% 
$4.51M
DAI 
$0.9994 
↓0.03% 
$4.08M
COMP 
$446.04 
↓3.0% 
$3.75M
SNX 
$19.596 
↑3.0% 
$3.13M
ICX 
$2.6855 
↑4.2% 
$3.06M
OMG 
$9.6585 
↑0.3% 
$2.8M
BAT 
$1.4119 
↓2.1% 
$2.57M
KAVA 
$6.5938 
↓5.9% 
$2.53M
OCEAN 
$1.6560 
↓3.6% 
$2.42M
QTUM 
$14.663 
↓1.9% 
$2.27M
CRV 
$3.0164 
↓3.2% 
$2.18M
ANT 
$10.697 
↓4.6% 
$1.93M
NANO 
$5.6921 
↑1.4% 
$1.91M
KNC 
$3.5034 
↓4.6% 
$1.86M
YFI 
$42840. 
↓5.2% 
$1.68M
ETC 
$19.193 
↓5.8% 
$1.44M
OXT 
$0.7723 
↓3.9% 
$1.43M
WAVES 
$15.288 
↓2.2% 
$1.35M
REP 
$47.281 
↓4.1% 
$1.27M
LSK 
$6.4095 
↓6.1% 
$1.09M
KEEP 
$0.7189 
↓4.0% 
$1.07M
EWT 
$16.354 
↓4.3% 
$768K
MLN 
$85.518 
↓4.3% 
$674K
PAXG 
$1741.0 
↓1.0% 
$663K
BAL 
$51.182 
↓1.2% 
$600K
REPV2 
$46.957 
↓4.2% 
$367K
GNO 
$172.93 
↓0.03% 
$292K
TBTC 
$60697. 
↓0.8% 
$50.2K



#####################. Trading Volume by Asset. ##########################################

Trading Volume by Asset


The figures below break down the trading volume of the largest, mid-size, and smallest assets. Cryptos are in purple, fiats are in blue. For each asset, the chart contains the daily trading volume in USD, and the percentage of the total trading volume. The percentages for fiats and cryptos are treated separately, so that they both add up to 100%.

Figure 1: Largest trading assets: trading volume (measured in USD) and its percentage of the total trading volume (April 12 2021)



Figure 2: Mid-size trading assets: (measured in USD) (April 12 2021)



Figure 3: Smallest trading assets: (measured in USD) (April 12 2021)



#####################. Spread %. ##########################################

Spread %


Spread percentage is the width of the bid/ask spread divided by the bid/ask midpoint. The values are generated by taking the median spread percentage over each minute, then the average of the medians over the day.

Figure 4: Average spread % by pair (April 12 2021)



.


#########. Returns and Volume ############################################

Returns and Volume


Figure 5: Returns of the four highest volume pairs (April 12 2021)


Figure 6: Volume of the major currencies and an average line that fits the data to a sinusoidal curve to show the daily volume highs and lows (April 12 2021)



###########. Daily Returns. #################################################

Daily Returns %


Figure 7: Returns over USD and XBT. Relative volume and return size is indicated by the size of the font. (April 12 2021)



###########. Disclaimer #################################################

The values generated in this report are from public market data distributed from Kraken WebSockets api. The total volumes and returns are calculated over the reporting day using UTC time.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://blog.kraken.com/post/8612/kraken-daily-market-report-for-april-12-2021/

Continue Reading

Blockchain

Bitcoin Prepares For its Next Move: Where is the 100 SMA, the Key BTC Level?

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Bitcoin price is consolidating above the $59,500 support zone against the US Dollar. BTC is now showing a few positive signs, but it must clear $61,200 for a fresh rally in the near term.

  • Bitcoin is holding gains above the $60,000 and $59,500 support levels.
  • The price is now trading well above the $59,500 level and the 100 hourly simple moving average.
  • There is a key bullish trend line forming with support near $59,400 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair (data feed from Kraken).
  • The pair is likely to start a sharp upward move once it clears the $60,800 and $61,200 levels.

Bitcoin Price is Showing Positive Signs

Bitcoin remained in a range above the $59,000 level and it is showing a few positive signs. Recently, BTC made another attempt to clear the $61,200 resistance, but it failed.

It corrected lower and retested the $59,500 support level. A low is formed near $59,432 and the price is now moving higher. It is also trading well above the $59,500 level and the 100 hourly simple moving average.

There was a break above the 50% Fib retracement level of the recent decline from the $61,212 high to $59,432 low. There is also a key bullish trend line forming with support near $59,400 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair.

Bitcoin Price

Source: BTCUSD on TradingView.com

Bitcoin is now trading above $60,400, but it is facing resistance near $60,800. It is close to the 76.4% Fib retracement level of the recent decline from the $61,212 high to $59,432 low.

A successful break above the $60,800 level could open the doors for a move above $61,200. If the bulls succeed in clearing $61,200, the price could rally in the coming sessions.

Dips Limited in BTC?

If bitcoin fails to climb above $60,800 and $61,200, there could be a short-term downside correction. An initial support on the downside is near the $60,000 level.

The main support is now forming near the trend line, $59,500 and the 100 hourly simple moving average. If the bulls fail to protect the 100 hourly SMA, there could be a major decline. In this case, the price might decline towards the $58,000 level.

Technical indicators:

Hourly MACD – The MACD is now gaining momentum in the bullish zone.

Hourly RSI (Relative Strength Index) – The RSI for BTC/USD is now well above the 50 level.

Major Support Levels – $59,500, followed by $59,000.

Major Resistance Levels – $60,800, $61,200 and $62,000.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.newsbtc.com/analysis/btc/bitcoin-prepares-for-next-move-61k/

Continue Reading

Blockchain

USDT, USDC, and BUSD represent 93% of stablecoin market cap

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Research from on-chain analytics provider Glassnode has revealed that the top three stablecoins represent more than 90% of the sector’s entire market cap.

Glassnode’s April 13 “Week On-chain” report found that the top three stablecoins — Tether (USDT), USD Coin (USDC), and Binance USD (BUSD) — have seen significant growth over the past six months to represent a combined capitalization of more than $60 billion, equal to 92.75% of the stablecoin market.

By contrast, six months ago the combined stablecoin capitalization for those three was less than one-third of its current levels at $19.2 billion. This time last year, stablecoins were worth just $7 billion combined.

The analysis compared the growth of stablecoins with Bitcoin’s market cap, identifying a clear correlation between the two. The report also found that USDT’s supply has continued to increase during recent weeks despite BTC trending sideways, whereas growth for USDC and BUSD has slowed.

BTC market cap vs stablecoin supply: Glassnode

The report notes historic lows for its Stablecoin Supply Ratio (SSR) metric, which measures Bitcoin’s market cap relative to the total stablecoin supply to estimate the global “buying power” of the stablecoin sector.

When BTC prices are low, the supply of stablecoins can buy a larger portion of it to push prices up. Conversely, as prices increase the available stablecoins can purchase less which reduces the influence on prices. Glassnode concluded:

“The growth of stablecoin supplies throughout 2020-21 has held the SSR metric near historical lows suggesting a relatively high buying power of digitally native dollars. The demand for digital dollars appears to be keeping pace with demand for Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies as a whole.”

Tether’s market cap has over doubled since the beginning of 2021 to currently sit at a record $45.6 billion, according to the Tether transparency report. Circle’s website reported an all-time high of $11.5 billion USDC on April 9, while Goingecko estimated BUSD’s supply to be $5.1 billion on April 13.

On April 7, Circle CEO Jeremy Allaire predicted its USDC stablecoin could soon surpass PayPal by settlement value.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/usdt-usdc-and-busd-represent-93-of-stablecoin-market-cap

Continue Reading
Blockchain5 days ago

XRP Price Analysis: 08 April

Blockchain5 days ago

Tesla’s landlord accepts crypto; will Elon Musk pay rent in Bitcoin?

Blockchain5 days ago

$48B Asset Manager Millennium Management Dabbles With Bitcoin

Blockchain5 days ago

Bitcoin Miners Hit Jackpot as Hash Rate Peaks Again

Blockchain5 days ago

Binance Smart Chain Daily Transactions 200% More Than Ethereum’s

Blockchain5 days ago

Revolutionizing the crypto-market in India with CryptoBiz exchange

Blockchain5 days ago

Digital yuan campaign planned for contested island in the South China Sea

Blockchain5 days ago

Polkadot Price Analysis: 08 April

Blockchain5 days ago

America’s Second-Oldest Bank State Street to Enable Crypto Trading on its Platform

Blockchain5 days ago

Bitcoin exchanges just saw massive Tether stablecoin deposits

Blockchain5 days ago

Phemex Launches OTC Trading, Enables Crypto Purchase with Bank Transfers

Blockchain5 days ago

Man Gets 12 Years in Prison After Trying to Buy Lethal Chemical Weapon With Bitcoin

Blockchain5 days ago

Cardano’s Anti-Counterfeit Solution Sees First Successful Implemetation

Blockchain5 days ago

Ether price takes on Bitcoin — What’s behind the sharp rise in demand?

Blockchain5 days ago

What you should know about DOT, XLM, TRX, and FIL being in the buy zone

Blockchain5 days ago

Equilibrium raises $2.5M to secure support for Polkadot parachain bid

Blockchain5 days ago

Tron, BAT, VeChain Price Analysis: 08 April

Blockchain5 days ago

Uniswap Price Analysis: 08 April

Blockchain5 days ago

Kraken’s First Brink Grantee Will Fuel Bitcoin Rust Development

Blockchain5 days ago

New petition asks SEC chair nominee Gary Gensler to drop Ripple lawsuit

Trending