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Fintech Basics: What is Cryptocurrency? – Fintech Singapore


What is cryptocurrency? It is a form of digital or virtual currency that leverages cryptography for security. Unlike traditional currencies issued by governments (like the US Dollar or the Euro), cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks based on blockchain technology—a distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers.

What is Cryptocurrency?

The concept of digital money isn’t new, but the arrival of Bitcoin in 2009 revolutionised it. Back then, people have never heard of, let alone thought about what is cryptocurrency.

Created by an unknown person or group of people under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin introduced the concept of a decentralised currency that didn’t require a central authority for governance.

How Does Cryptocurrency Work?

Blockchain Technology

Most cryptocurrencies operate on a blockchain — a public ledger containing all transactions that have ever taken place in a particular cryptocurrency. This ledger is maintained by a network of nodes (computers), each keeping a copy and updating it as new transactions occur.

Mining and Consensus Mechanisms

Maintaining the blockchain requires solving complex cryptographic puzzles, a process known as mining. Miners are rewarded with newly minted coins for their effort, making mining a way to earn cryptocurrency without buying it.

However, not all cryptocurrencies use mining. Different cryptocurrencies use different consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) to validate transactions and secure the network.

Wallets and Transactions

To own and make transactions in cryptocurrency, you need a digital wallet. This wallet has a public key, known to others, and a private key, known only to you.

When you send cryptocurrency, you “sign” the transaction with your private key, proving you are the owner of the coins being sent.

Popular Cryptocurrencies

Bitcoin (BTC)

When one is asked ‘What is cryptocurrency?’, the very first thing that will spring to mind is Bitcoin.

As the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, Bitcoin has paved the way for many others. Its primary purpose is to serve as a digital currency, but it has also been adopted as a store of value, similar to gold.

Ethereum (ETH)

Launched in 2015, Ethereum introduced smart contracts—self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. This feature has made Ethereum the platform of choice for many decentralized applications (DApps) and initial coin offerings (ICOs).


There are thousands of other cryptocurrencies, including Litecoin, Ripple (XRP), and Cardano. Each has its unique features, use cases, and communities.

Risks and Challenges


Cryptocurrencies are highly volatile. Their value can swing wildly within short periods, making them both a lucrative investment and a risky one.

Regulatory Uncertainty

The lack of a centralised authority also means that the legal status of cryptocurrencies can be complicated. Some governments have embraced them, while others have imposed restrictions or outright bans.

Security Risks

Being digital, cryptocurrencies are susceptible to hacking. Several high-profile cryptocurrency exchanges have been hacked, and funds stolen. However, these risks can be mitigated to an extent by following good security practices like using hardware wallets for large sums.

The Future

Cryptocurrency has the potential to revolutionize various sectors, from finance and governance to supply chain management and beyond. With emerging trends like Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) and decentralised finance (DeFi), the cryptocurrency landscape is evolving in exciting and unpredictable ways.

Cryptocurrency is a complex but increasingly important part of the modern financial landscape. While risky and still somewhat on the fringes of mainstream acceptance, it offers a compelling vision of a more decentralised and open financial system. Whether you’re considering investing in cryptocurrencies or simply curious about the technology, understanding its basics is crucial.

Remember to do your own research and consult with financial advisors before making any investment decisions in this highly volatile and rapidly changing field.

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