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Ethereum 2.0 Explained in 4 Easy Metrics

With the launch of every new blockchain comes a new block explorer website to understand.

Republished by Plato

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With the launch of every new blockchain comes a new block explorer website to understand. 

Block explorer sites offer real-time updates on network activity. Normally, they feature information on blocks, transactions and fees. On Ethereum 2.0, the block explorers depict a very different array of metrics involving epochs, slots and attestations. 

But even for those familiar with the usual Ethereum explorers such as Etherscan, Etherchain and Blockchair, the new sites for tracking Eth 2.0 activity may be difficult to decipher. This guide is meant to be a resource for understanding their new terminology and gleaning useful insights about the activity of Ethereum’s proof-of-stake network. 

For anyone unfamiliar with blockchain explorers in general, this guide will go over the basic details of reading an Ethereum 2.0 blockchain explorer. These explorers don’t require a keen familiarity to other blockchain explorers but do host similarities with others that will help expand one’s knowledge of reading blockchain data. 

See also: Ethereum 2.0 Beacon Chain Goes Live

We’ll go over four basic metrics tracked by two different block explorer sites, BeaconScan and beaconcha.in. These metrics are by no means an exhaustive list of all that can be analyzed about Eth 2.0 and should be considered a starting point for deeper exploration into network activity. 

Epochs progressed

Snapshot of the Ethereum 2.0 network on Jan. 7, 2020, at 19:37 UTC
Source: BeaconScan

Unlike Bitcoin and Ethereum, Ethereum 2.0 progresses in epochs, not blocks. An epoch is a bundle of up to 32 blocks that actors on the network (called validators) propose and attest to over a period lasting roughly 6.4 minutes. An epoch, along with all the blocks of which it is composed, is only considered finalized after the progression of two more epochs after it. 

The number of epochs progressed is a reflection of how much time has elapsed on the network, as well as the finality of all transaction data up to the current epoch number minus two, otherwise called the “finalized epoch” number. (See image above.)

This metric can be a useful indicator of any network abnormalities. Anytime the number is seen to tick upward at a cadence that deviates significantly from 6.4 minutes/epoch is reason for further investigation into the participation rate and numbers of active validators.

Number of active validators

Number of active validators
Source: beaconcha.in

The number of active validators represents the number of computers, also called nodes, that have a 32 ETH stake on Eth 2.0 and that have passed the activation queue for entry into the network. As of Jan. 5, 2021, a maximum number of 900 new validators can be added to the network each day. 

A total of 262,144 validators is needed at minimum for Eth 2.0 to advance to its next phase of development in which 64 mini-blockchains, called “shards,” will be spawned. At the current rate of 900 new validators being added to the network each day, phase 1 will occur sometime in late August or early September of this year. 

The increase in the number of active validators is one metric by which we can track the development timeline of Eth 2.0. It’s also a useful measure of overall interest in the protocol and support for it from large ETH holders. 

Network participation rate

Network participation rate
Source: beaconcha.in

The network participation rate is a useful indicator of Eth 2.0 network health. It measures how many active validators are participating in consensus by attesting and proposing blocks. Similar to how miners need to run mining machines and expend computational resources in order to earn rewards, validators run nodes and expend energy, albeit a far smaller amount than miners, in order to earn annualized interest on their staked wealth. 

A participation rate of 99% suggests the vast majority of validators on Eth 2.0 are doing their job and securing the network. Significant declines in this number would suggest active validators are shutting their nodes down and disconnecting from Eth 2.0.

This could be as a result of a major power outage in a certain part of the world or of validators lacking sufficient financial incentive to keep their machines running. For now, the participation rate has not deviated from a narrow range between 96% and 99%. However, its change over time will give clues as to how engaged Eth 2.0 validators are with earning rewards on the network. 

Average validator income

Daily validator income
Source: BeaconScan

Last but not least, one of the most intuitive and interesting metrics to track on Ethereum 2.0 is how much validators are earning on average, daily. Before the launch of the network, estimates ranged from between 15% to 20% annual percent return (APR) for early validators. As of Jan. 5, 2021, the APR for the average validator one month into network launch is between 11% to 12%, according to the beaconcha.in calculator.

On block explorer BeaconScan, validator rewards are broken down by day. For the past two weeks, validators have been earning roughly 0.008 ETH/day, which is valued at around $8.86/day at time of writing. Initially, the daily average had reached as high as 0.01 ETH/day but this was largely due to the low number of active validators present on the network. The reward system of Eth 2.0 is dynamically structured so that an increasing number of Eth 2.0 validators will trigger lower validator returns and vice versa. 

Taking a look at the lowest daily average recorded thus far, which is 0.005 ETH/day on Dec. 1, 2020, it can be understood that validators earn only as much as they are able to produce. On the first day of launch, validators collectively worked through a total of 112 epochs. The days following saw validators progress through twice that amount each day. 

Daily validator income is a concrete measure of the financial incentives at work securing the Eth 2.0 network. Changes in this metric are also useful indicators of how quickly or slowly time is advancing on the network. 

Going beyond block explorers

Block explorers provide a wealth of information about the hour-by-hour and minute-by-minute activity of the Ethereum 2.0 network. They’re also free to use and available to the public. 

Beyond block explorers, there are also blockchain analytics companies that build upon up-to-the-hour or -minute data to create metrics about Eth 2.0 spanning longer time horizons. 

For deeper exploration into Eth 2.0 metrics, explore these sites: CryptoQuant, Dune Analytics and Glassnode

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Disclosure

Source: https://www.coindesk.com/ethereum-2-0-explained-in-4-easy-metrics

Blockchain

JP Morgan: Bitcoin Needs to Reclaim $40K Soon or Momentum Will Fade

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Bitcoin has to endure and overcome the $40,000 boundary in order to avoid a consequent major price correction. JPMorgan strategists say that otherwise, the major cryptocurrency might suffer investment outflow.

The $40K Is the Key to Future Prospects for BTC

According to a JPMorgan Chase & Co report, cited by Bloomberg, this level is an omen to more eventual losses.

The major financial institution strategists led by Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou said that the cryptocurrency is at risk of further losses and an outflow of trend-following investors unless it can “break out” over the $40K frontier. The team added that the pattern of demand for BTC futures and the $22.9 billion Grayscale Bitcoin Trust might help determine the perspective.

“The flow into the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust would likely need to sustain its $100 million per day pace over the coming days and weeks for such a breakout to occur,” the strategists commented on Friday.

After a record-breaking hit near $42K in the first week of January, Bitcoin suffered a significant price correction with almost $12K in just a short time, leaving investors pondering the reasons. JPM strategists said that the primary cryptocurrency has been in a similar situation last November when it passed the $20,000 test.

Furthermore, a significant flow of institutional money entering the Grayscale trust has encouraged the BTC rally claimed, JPM specialists. They’ve also noted that trend-following traders “could propagate the past week’s correction” and “momentum signals will naturally decay from here up till the end of March” if BTC price doesn’t break the $40,000 milestone.

Breaking the $40K Limit and Replacing Gold?

Amidst both volatile behavior and opinions on BTC, recently, JPMorgan shared another possible Bitcoin scenario. As CryptoPotato reported, analysts from the financial institution have claimed that the cryptocurrency has taken portions of gold’s market share which could lead to price losses for the bullion.

Back then, strategists said that institutional investors had shown significant transfers from gold ETFs to bitcoin, thus suggesting adverse price developments for the noble metal.

Both bitcoin and gold have one thing in common – their rather limited supply – which had encouraged investors to think that the digital asset might replace the precious metal to an extent in the future.

Analysts said that since October, “money has poured into Bitcoin funds and out of gold, a trend that’s only going to continue in the long run as more institutional investors take a position in cryptocurrencies.” Still, the bold suggestions remain more of a speculation, while BTC remains quite volatile.

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/jp-morgan-bitcoin-needs-to-reclaim-40k-soon-or-momentum-will-fade/

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Blockchain

Bitcoin Exchange Owner Sues Australian Banks For $290K For Accounts Closure

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The legal battle comes as the Aussie man allegedly suffered significant losses in his crypto business after the banks, Westpac and ANZ, shut down his accounts, local media reported Monday.

According to the proceedings filed at the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal, Allan Flynn alleged that the banks’ action was illegal as they closed his accounts without any prior warning or reason.  

20 Accounts Closed In Three Years

Flynn owns an AUSTRAC-registered crypto exchange with about 450 customers. Using the platform, he helps his clients to purchase crypto assets like Bitcoin.

The Australian Financial Review revealed that the complainant has had about 20 of his accounts shut down in the last three years by more than five Australian banks, including CBA, NAB, ING, and Bendigo Bank, to mention a few.

Following the continued account closures, Flynn said he opened new accounts with Westpac and ANZ while informing the banks that the account was for crypto transactions. But both accounts were closed after almost a year of running them. He said he received a message from Westpac saying his account would be closed in five days. His effort to open another account with Westpac was not successful.

He requested to know why his account was closed and why he couldn’t open a new one, and the bank told him that he was “under investigation for cryptocurrency fraud.”

Flynn said Westpac offered him a compensation of AUD$250 for not providing “reasonable notice” before closing the account. However, he hasn’t “seen a cent of it either.”

Not The Only One

For one thing, cryptocurrencies and exchanges are legal in Australia, and there’s no law prohibiting banks from rendering services to crypto traders. However, Flynn noted that he is not the only victim of this unlawful discrimination. 

“I am by no means alone or the first. I know of at least one other trader who has had accounts closed more than 60 times,” he said, adding that “how am I supposed to run a lawful business if I can’t get a bank account?”

According to the report, Flynn demands a total settlement of AUD$375,000 from the banks, with the hearing expected to take place in late March. 

He is seeking AUD$250,000 for stress and inconvenience and AUD$125,000 for emotional distress and reputational damage. Aside from closing his accounts, Flynn alleged that an ANZ employee informed other banks and his clients that he was fraudulent. 

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Source: https://cryptopotato.com/bitcoin-exchange-owner-sues-australian-banks-for-290k-for-accounts-closure/

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Blockchain

Cardano Price Analysis: 18 January

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Cardano’s price has surged by a massive 133% in the last 15 days and the rally shows signs of more upward movement. Trading at $0.378 ADA is ranked the sixth-largest cryptocurrency in the world in terms of market cap. The cryptocurrency has witnessed a reduced volatility phase leading to fairly stagnant price movement.

Due to the formation of a bullish pattern, ADA’s outlook is overall bullish and suggests a price surge upwards of 10 -30% in the mid-to-long term.

Cardano 4-hour chart

Source: ADAUSD, TradingView

As seen in the chart, ADA’s price has formed a bullish pennant with the price already breaking out of the pattern on January 16. Since the breakout, ADA has surged approximately 20% to where it currently stands. Although the general outlook is bullish, there might be a retest of the supports at $0.3579 and $0.3455, pushing the price higher.

With the price already surging 20% from the pennant, we can expect another 40% surge on the table. Hence, a long position would better serve the profits that are yet to come.

Source: ADAUSD TradingView

Supporting this is the constant inflow of volume despite the stagnant movement in price as seen in the OBV indicator. Following this, there is the RSI indicator that shows a retreat from the overbought zone due to the recent breakout from the pennant.

Lastly, the MACD indicator showed a dip in both the MACD line and the signal indicating a decrease in buying momentum. It also shows that these lines might undergo a bearish crossover soon.

Conclusion

With bitcoin trending sideways, this is the time for altcoins to surge higher. Rightfully so, altcoins are surging without a stop in sight, hitting new all-time highs – especially the DeFi coins. With ADA’s bullish pattern, there is a high chance for it to surge to $0.5333 or 67%. On the other hand, a drop below 0.240 would indicate failure of the uptrend and a continuation of the downtrend.

Source: https://ambcrypto.com/cardano-price-analysis-18-january

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